The history of North  America as written by non-Natives is incomplete, for it is written by those who think they are conquerors.  The conqueror is the person who looks outside himself to  make order rather than making clear his own mind; therefore, all that he sees and speaks is based on the lies of pride and confusion.  The Native people, particularly the Tsalagi people, had a philosphy and a written language probably before the people of Europe were emerging from their caves.  The calendar of the Americas is the oldest calendar in the world and one of the most accurate.  The first people to understand the significance of zero were the Native  American people, through careful meditation and observation of the universe.    (Voices of Our Ancestors )


In the very early 1800’s Chief Old Billy Bowleggs, designated the Indian Creek Tribe as the keepers of the history for all Chickamauga Cherokee. As an extension of this duty, our tribe has been creating historically accurate educational programs for many years in both Alabama and Florida.

We educate children and adults through school programs, our website, tribal newsletters, public demonstrations, books and story fires that detail the telling of historical actions of this great nation while documenting the unique events pertaining to our people and the United States Government.  We are an independent people who can document our history well before the American Revolution.

Material appearing here is distributed without profit or monetary gain to those who have expressed an interest in viewing the material for research and educational purposes.  This is in accordance with Title 17 U. S. C. section 107. Reprinted under the Fair Use doctrine of international copyright law.   Non-profit/Teaching/Educational


Click Here to visit

our Tribal Store.


The Legacy of Burnt Corn

The end of the Revolution War brought the beginning of pioneer settlement at Burnt Corn. Native Americans and early Scottish, Irish and English had traversed the old trails that met at Burnt Corn, known as Three Notch Trail and the Old Wolf Path. The settlement of the territorial claims of Great Britain and the United States of America were reached on November 30, 1782. The Treaty of Paris established the Southern boundary of the U.S. at the 31st parallel north. Great Britain would retain possession of the Florida's.

Spain had won possession of West Florida by military conquest on May 9, 1781. On September 3, 1783, Great Britain ceded both east and west Florida to Spain. No northern boundary was fixed for the Florida's under this Treaty of Cession. Spain claimed the northern boundary to be at 32 degrees 28 minutes North latitude as fixed by the British Royal Proclamation of 1767. The Untied States claimed the northern boundary to be at 31 degrees north latitude, as fixed by the Treaty of Paris.

The conflicting terms of the two treaties led to conflict between the two powers over the territory lying between 31 degrees north and 32 degrees 28 minutes" north latitude. This conflict was settled on October 27, 1795, when, under the terms of the treaty of San Lorenzo El Real, the southern boundary of the United States was again fixed at the 31st parallel.

The United States formed the Mississippi Territory on April 7, 1798, to assure possession of this territory lately in dispute. As created by Congress, the Mississippi Territory embraces all the present states of Mississippi and Alabama lying above 32 degrees 28 minutes north was claimed by Georgia under her royal charter.

Because of the conflict of claims between the United States and Spain over this territory, few white American settlers had ventured into it to make their homes. The only settlements of any importance in Alabama were the settlements of the Tombigbee and Alabama Rivers on lands ceded to the English by the Chickasaw Indians in 1765.

The Creek Indian Nation was another matter. The Nation had not ceded any territories to the United States government in this region. On June 4, 1800, Governor Winthrop Sergeant, of the Mississippi Territory, consolidated all the territorial lands into one country, which he called Washington. The land in question on the Alabama River actually belonged to the Creek Indian Nation. The Creek Indianscontrolled access in and out of the nation, requiring passes to travel through their land. Those allowed into the Nation to settle were traders, most of who had married into the Creek Tribe.These men were allowed to stay and build homes; many became trading posts to the Indians and to travelers on their way westward. It was these individuals who first saw the pristine territories of what we now call Monroeand Conecuhcounties. These were our counties' first settlers in the area known as Burnt Corn Springs.

When the United States purchased the Louisiana Territory form France on December 20, 1803, it was expedient for the United States to establish a land route between Washington and New Orleans, the capital of the Louisiana Territory, for the movement of troops and supplies, if necessary. Britain and the United States were still sparing; American wanted landlines to the coast.

On November 14, 1805, the Creek Nationmet in Washington with representatives of the U.S. Government to give permission for a "horse path" to be established. In the Creeks own words: "It is hereby stipulated and agreed, on the part of the Creek Nation, that the government of the United States shall have a right to a horse path, through the Creek Country, from the Okmulgee to the Mobile, in such direction as shall, by the President of the United States, be considered most convenient, and to clear out the same, and lay logs over the creeks: and the citizens of said States, shall at all times have a right to pass peaceably on said path, under such regulations and restrictions, as the government of the United States shall from time to time direct; and the Creek chiefs will have boats kept at the several rivers for the convenience of men and horses and houses of entertainment established at suitable places on said path for the accommodation of travelers; and the respective ferriage and prices of entertainment for men and horses, shall be regulated by the present agent, Colonel Hawkins, or by the successor in office, or as is usual among white people." With this permission given to the United States government, the Creek Indian Nation would change forever. As travelers followed the "horse path" through the fertile and lush lands of the Creek, many coveted the Indian Territory. This path followed two well known Indian trails, the Chiaha Alibamo Trail that led form Chiaha on the Chattahoochee River, west to the Alibamo towns near the present day Montgomery, and the Great Pensacola Trading Path (Old Wolf Trail) that led from the Alibamo towns to Pensacola. Burnt Corn was to be situated on this trail. Burnt Corn has many natural springs making the area a good stopping point on the two trails.

The Horse Path developed into the Federal Road.Peter Hamilton, writing in Colonial Mobile, says of the road: "This first rough roadway at first not more than a glazed path, played for Alabama, the part which the Stone via Appia did for the country south of Rome. But for the Federal Roadwith its forts, there would have been no Alabama as we know it." This road was paramount to the growth and settlement of Monroeand Conecuhcounties.

The Federal roadwas improved by and Act of Congress of April 21, 1866, as follows: "That the President of the United States be and hereby is authorized to cause to be opened a road from the frontier of Georgia, on the route from Athens to New Orleans, till the same intersects the 31st degree of north latitude: provided, he shall not expend more than six thousand in opening the same."

On March 3, 1805, some months before the convention of Washington, the United States Congress established a post road, from Washington City, by Athens in Georgia, to New Orleans. The post riders followed the Indian trails and passed through Burnt Corn Creek.

With improvement of the Federal Road came more and more white Americans looking for land. The increase of these settlers and their encroachment in Creek Territories helped bring about the Creek Indian War, which forever ended the Creek Indian Nation domination of the areas now known as Monroeand Conecuhcounties.

Burnt Corn would play a role in that war with the Battle of Burnt Corn,which many of the participants later would call a "skirmish" and some, according to Pickett's History of Alabama, were ashamed to admit being at the so-called battle, which was considered a victory for the warring faction of the Creek Nation,the Red Sticks.

The town would also watch Andrew Jackson's troops in 1814 move thorough to Ft. Bowyer to aid in its defense against the British. In the Mexican War, this road saw the movement of troops from the Atlantic states to New Orleans to board ships to Mexico. Confederate troops followed this road through Burnt Corn on the way to the battlefields of Virginia.

Burnt Corn had become the site of the earliest settlement in Monroe County. Even before the defeat of the Creek Nationand the Treaty of Ft. Jackson, settlers of both Native American and white descent were living at the crossroads of the Great Pensacola Trading Path and the Federal Road,which formed the Main Street of Burnt Corn as it, does still today.

Taverns were established along the road as provided by the Creek and United States Convention held in Washington. They were usually located about eighteen miles apart for this was considered a day's journey by stagecoach. Coker's tavern is shown on early maps of Alabama and is generally shown to be in the vicinity of Burnt Corn. Nathan Cokerreceived a patent from the government to lands along the Federal Road in 1819. Garrett Longmire shows up on early maps also with a tavern located approximately two to three miles north of Burnt Corn.

Following the defeat of the Creeks, the Treaty of Fort Jackson forced them to cede their lands to the United States on August 9, 1814. On June 29, 1815, Governor Holmes of the Mississippi Territory created Monroe County, which at that time embraced almost two-thirds of the State of Alabama; it extended from the Florida line to the mountains of Blount and from the Tombigbee to the Chattahoochee.

Natives Americans watched as their former lands were burned, cleared and tilled for crops. They learned quickly what the word "defeat" meant as log structures begin to dot the country side of their former forest. In desperate attempts they should form bands or raiding parties and attack lone settlers who risked their own lives to settle here. Colonel Richard Warren constructed Fort Warren near Pine Orchard (approximately 6 miles north of Burnt Corn) for protection of settlers and travelers.

Settlements naturally grew up along the Federal Road.Burnt Corn is first mentioned in the Acts of the Post Roads on April 20, 1818, in an act establishing a Post road "from Fort Mitchell, by Fort Bainbridge, Fort Jackson, Burnt Corn Spring, Fort Claiborne, and the Town of Jackson to St. Stephens. Many people traveled the "Post Road." Francis Scott Keyreputedly traveled the Federal Road in a government wagon while on his mission to Alabama. William Bertram, the naturalist, traveled the road collecting specimens. Lorenzo Dow,the Methodist circuit rider, supposedly visited Burnt Corn on his way to St. Stephensin 1804. Aaron Burrpassed through in 1807, while under arrest for treason. James Stuartrecords his journey in a journal which states that his coach turned over eight times coming from Milledgeville, Georgia. He sold his vehicle in Montgomery and finished his journey on horseback.

From 1816 and on, Burnt Corn saw rapid development. Thousands of acres were sold to families coming from Georgia, South Carolina and Virginia. Dr. John Watkins came from the town of Claiborne and other Alabamians moved to Burnt Corn from other settlements in Alabama. Log dogtrot homes were built, stores opened, postal service began 1817. Jeremiah Austill brought his young bride Martha to the area. He lost her only a few years later when, while sitting on a rail fence, she was startled by a small group of Indians and fell, hitting her head. She died later and Jeremiah buried her behind their home.

James Grace, reputably the first "white settler" came in 1816, then Captain Hayeswho bought a thousand acres of land around Burnt Corn. John Greenstarted the first school, "Student's Retreat," probably in the 1820's. In 1822 the first public road was built which cut from what is now Beatricethrough Burnt Corn to Belleville.Major Walker opened a store in Burnt Corn in 1822, and the Bethany Baptist Church at Burnt Corn was busy constructing their first building having organized officially in 1821. By the 1840's Burnt Corn was enjoying times as was the rest of Alabama.

Along with these new people into the territory, came African American Slaves. They tilled the land and planted the crops, took care of the children, cooked, sewed, built homes and barns. Today these descendants still live in Burnt Corn, bearing the names of Coker, Grace, Rankins, Lett, and Salter. North of the stores was Mr. Robinson’s blacksmith shop with a gristmillacross the street. Homesand farms fanned out around Burnt Corn. According to the R.A. Gray Historical Center in Tallahassee, Florida, Burnt Corn was a rail stop on the Alabama-Florida Railroad in 1862. Railroads do not run through Burnt Corn today, as shown on the mapon the linked page. The rail line goes form Repton to Peterman. There may have been a change in town names, rather than railroad realignment. The Alabama-Florida Railway ran form Atlanta, Georgia to Pensacola, Florida and was operational throughout the Civil War. After the war, railroad companies began building and improving many more lines.

By the turn of the century, Burnt Corn was in a "boom period" having recovered from the War Between the States and Reconstruction. The Kyser-Betts Gin Mill was working continuously through cotton season with wagonloads of cotton being brought from many areas in Monroeand Conecuh counties. The Mosley Hariston Store was sitting at the site of the Lowery Storetoday and many new homes were being built on the main streetof Burnt Corn. James and Cora Betts Kyser built their Victorian home next to the Methodist church they also built. The Masonic Lodge #849 had been organized December 3, 1890, and eventually met upstairs in the store known today as Lowery Store. The Burnt Corn Methodist Church also met there until the Methodist church was finished in 1908. A.O. Brantleyalso opened a store Main Street.

During the late twenties and early thirties the Depression hit hard in rural Alabama. Farming was no longer as profitable and many families who had been in Burnt Corn for a hundred years lost their land and livelihood to the banks and lending institutions. They left Burnt Corn to move to the more largely populated towns such as Monroevilleand Evergreen.

It was also at this time the face of Burnt corn began to change. Samuel Anthony Lowery, a schoolteacher, had come to Burnt Corn in the 1870s to farm and raise jersey cows. In 1876 he married Martha Ann Betts, daughter of James and Cynthia Betts. This union would eventually bring their son, Jacob,to begin the Lowery dynasty in Burnt Corn. Jacobwas ambitious and continuously acquired more land to add to the property that had been accumulated already by his father and through his mother's family, the Betts. This included the cotton ginand main storeof Burnt Corn.

His son, Sam,became the postmaster at Burnt Corn and continued to acquire land. During the forties the family possessed over thirteen thousand acres of farm and timberland, in and around Burnt Corn. Today Burnt Corn is almost entirely owned by the Lowery Trust, which is made up of many family members, none of whom live in Burnt Corn.

The surviving members of the congregation recently donated the Bethany Baptist Church at Burnt Corn to the Monroe County Heritage Museum.Two homes in Burnt Corn on the main streetare still privately owned: the old Robinson Place is owned by the family. The Mosley Culbreth house is also privately owned.



     My name is Chance, and I am alone upon this land. I have long since crossed the great river. No other rides with me, my brothers, the Creeks, are some place behind me and the plains lie vast about. My eyes are toward the horizon, where the spirit of the sun sets in gold and crimson, an enormous sun, like no other that my eyes have ever seen in the thirty years that have been mine.

     What I loved is gone, what I lived for, vanished. I ride westward into an unknown land, toward what destiny I know not. It has ever been our way, the Creeks and the Chances to run westward when faced with grief and desolation.

     I ride to lose myself, but can a man ever lose that which is in him? That which is blood and bone to him? That which has been his life?

     My brothers have told me that I am a foolish Indian, that I ride only to my death but if it is to be, then let it be.

     My wife, my dearly beloved is dead. My son whom was to grow tall and sire, yet another generation of Creek Indians, is also gone, done to death by the flames from which he tried to rescue his mother.

     Within me is emptiness and hate for the red coats, which attacked my village and killed many of my brothers. The studies to which I had given my life, abandoned.

     I have a good horse, a small medicine bag, an excellent knife and I have the Ferguson rifle, my constant companion since my father gave it to me as a young boy, is all that remain of my past, that and a few precious times I can remember my wife.

     The rifle was given to me when I was a small boy, just trying to be a warrior, my father presented it to me by the man who simplified the loading mechanism and put it into action said, “You men from across the great waters have been my enemies, but I will refuse no man a drink, you can get down now and drink.”

     He glanced toward the lodges, wary of a trap. I had no idea of it then he was such a much hated man and a man known for his harsh opinions of the Indians. “There naught to fear,” I said, and there was scorn in my tone. My mother is ill within my lodge and our women must be about fixing her supper. I held up the squirrel and not without pride.

     He glanced at it, and then he rode past me to the river. He dismounted to accept the water filled in the dipper from the hand of one of our women. Then he asked if she would refill it so he could drink again.

     The red coat said, “There is no finer drink than this, my Indian lad. Hear it from a thirsty man.”

     He noticed the puzzled expression in my eyes as I looked at his horse was a fine animal but it was his weapon that puzzled me. He wore a saber and there were two horse pistols in scabbards which were not unexpected but he also carried two rifles, one of them carefully. “What is it, Indian?” “Two rifles” I said. He chuckled but his eyes were on my ancient musket. “If you can bark a squirrel with that,” he said, “you must be an uncommonly good shot.”

     “I don’t miss,” I admitted honestly, “but when our powder and shot are gone, we must live on greens or return to using my bow and arrow.”

     He finished his water, and then led his horse to the river to drink. “May I pay my respects to your mother, Indian? If you say no, I shall not intrude.” No, we have few visitors here in our lands, why do you wish to see my mother, why do you come here, not to live among our people? To join my command, it is twenty miles, I believe, as he got back on his horse. He hesitated and then said, “We shall meet again, young Indian lad. We shall come in large numbers to take your lands, you have resisted us strongly and at home there is distaste for you. If you pass this way again, I will stop you,” he smiled.  Your command, you are our enemies, don’t forget, there will be no drink in the lands of the Creeks for you or your command.

     From his saddle he took the rifle and unwrapped it slowly. It was utterly new, unused, silver mounted and engraved. I gasped. Handsome is it not? He showed me how it was loaded for I had not seen a breech loader like this one before, nor this kind of mechanism, for he told me as he showed me the rifle. He said, “Lad, you are a very good shot, I have no idea whose hands this rifle might fall into, so I am going to give you this rifle so when I return, I will not have to kill a boy with a musket, but a man with a good weapon. Take it lad. I shall be gone and there will be no way to return it.” From his saddlebags he took a bag of shot and another of powder. “Do take these too, you surely need them more than I and before many hours are past, I shall be where there is little else. Take care lad and save it for I will return to make this my land” and he disappeared around the bend. I walked back towards the lodge, my brothers said, “why did we not kill him now, there will be more than enough time to kill him one day soon.” You should never accept a gift from your enemies that you did not return one of equal value but I did return one, my brothers, and they said, “What?” “I gave him his life; I let him leave our village, yes my brother, only to fight him again on another day, that he said he will kill you. That is to be seen.

     These things were long ago, the sun was gone, although light remained. With darkness near, I still had no camp and the bald plains promised nothing. Suddenly, as if born of a wish, there appeared a fold in the low hills. A grassy slope dropped away to a cluster of trees, dark now with evening and I thought I detected the sheen of water. Many were the warnings I had received. Water holes were few, used by all, and at such place, death might wait. I had not hunted through my boyhood years for nothing, nor had the birds of death robbed me of my senses. My nostrils caught the scent of wood smoke and I drew the rein to listen.

     At first I heard nothing, then the faint sound of horses cropping grass and a crackle as from a fire. Sitting on my horse, I peered through the leaves but could only see the shine of light, reflected from the seat of a saddle. It was unlikely a saddle would be used by an Indian, for the Indians are not my enemies by any means.

     Rifle in hand, I walked my horse forward, calling out, as was the custom. Come in with your hands empty, the voice was matter of fact, or take a bullet through the brisket. I drew up. When I come in, it will be with my rifle in my hands and if you want to start shooting, just open the ball. Somebody chuckled and then said, all right, all right, come on in.

     Several men sat about a fire and two of them had rifles in their hands. All wore buckskins; all had the appearance of frontiersmen. My dress alone would add a discordant note, for I was dressed like an Indian and the Ferguson I carried was but thirty inches long. Their own rifles looked to be forty four inches at least. “Light Indian, looks like you’ve come a fur piece.” “That I have.” Rifle in hand, I dismounted, keeping my horse between them and me.

     One of the men chuckled, “now that goes right with me, I like a careful man.” Tying my horse’s feel, I walked around him, possibly I am less careful than you suspect. My friends told me I was foolish to come out here alone. You’re alone? Startled they stared at me. Now that’s hard to believe. Indians are never alone.

     My palm slapped the rifle; anyway, as long as I have this aim, I am not quite alone. The first man to speak indicated the rifle, don’t know if I ever seen the like, mind if I look?

     It was my turn to chuckle, white man thinks Indian not too smart, if I allowed a chance acquaintance to take my gun from my hand. I’d be a very greener Indian, and then I moved up to the fire, I held it for them to see. This is a Ferguson rifle, given to me by the red coat who said one day he would return to kill me, did he return, a slim, dark young man seated near the Indian nodded. I heard tell of them. Heard it said they can shoot six times to the minute. Eight white men, eight times if one is practiced. I glanced around at the group. The lean dark man got to his feet, “are you a Creek Indian?” Yes I am, come sit, eat and join us, we are all friends here. So we sat and ate and the next day we all went our own way.




     A Spanish boy of about eighteen who was thrilled by the wonderful tales which he heard of great riches to be found in the new land, beyond the season. He joined a party of explorers and came to the land of Florida. The leader of the party sent the boy and four other men to Cuba on an errand, telling them to return as quickly as they could.

     After a few months, the boy and the four other men returned to Florida. They looked for their leader but they could not find a trace of him. It was not long before they were captured by the lower Creek Indians. The four older men were put to death at once but the boy was allowed to live. He was tied hand and foot and taken before Uceta, the chief of the lower Creek Indian Tribe.

     Now, Chief Uceta had a beautiful daughter, Ulelah, whom he loved very dearly. She went about with her father and was often present at the trials of the captives. When Ulelah saw the young man bound hand and foot, she was sorry for him. With a cry, she fell on her knees and begged her father to spare the life of the young boy captive. Chief Uceta could not refuse her, so the boy was untied. The chief ordered that he should be made a slave and that he should act as a guard in the temple of the dead.

     The lower Creek Indians did not bury their dead as the white eyes do now. They had the strange custom of wrapping the dead bodies in skins and placing them on top of arbors in the temple of the dead. The temple of the dead, as they called it, was outside the village and had to be guarded from wild animals. It was in this place that the boy was placed as a guard.

     One night as he stood watching the temple, he heard a noise. He ran quickly and found a large panther in the act of dragging away the body of a dead child. The boy drew his bow and killed the panther. Then he carried the child’s body back to its resting place.

     The lower Creek Indians were very proud of the boy for killing the panther. Chief Uceta was very kind to him and the Princess Ulelah praised his courage. For a long time he lived happily with the lower Creek Indians. He learned to speak their language and he taught them to understand his language.

     Then a war broke out. Chief Uceta led his tribe to fight a neighboring tribe to the north. The lower Creeks believed that an evil spirit had brought trouble and war upon them. They held council meeting and decided to offer up a sacrifice to gain the good will of this spirit. The boy was chosen to be the sacrifice.

     Fortunately, Ulelah had heard of the plan. She walked until darkness came, then she went in and warned the boy of the danger he was in. She told him to go to Mucoso, a chieftain whom she had promised to marry and to say that she had sent a stranger for him to protest. Then she led the way for a mile to guide him to safety.

     The boy traveled all night and in the morning came to the land of Mucoso. The chieftain received him kindly and gave him food and shelter. He promised that if the white eyes ever came into his land, he would send the boy away with them.

     One day, the lower Creek Indians told the boy that the white eyes had been seen in the land of Mucoso. He and some friendly Indians set out immediately to find them. Searching eagerly for some time, they came in sight of a band of Spaniards. Suddenly, the white eyes rushed upon the boy and the Creek Indians, who were with him, and began slaying or capturing them. The boy, expecting to be killed, cried out in Spanish, “I am Christian, I am Christian, Do not slay me.”

     The men were so surprised that they stood still in their places. Then one of them got down from his horse, helped the boy to the seat behind the saddle and then galloped away to DeSoto’s camp. For the first time in twelve years, the boy was among the white eyes.

     When he reached their camp, the boy was royally welcomed by DeSoto and his one hundred or so followers. He told them many interesting stories of what had happened during the twelve years he had lived among the lower Creek Indians. He not only dressed like the Indians, but he painted his face and his arms just like they did.  The life outdoors had caused his skin to be almost as dark as that of the Indians. He had learned their language and knew much about their habits and customs and beliefs.

     With the boy as their guide, the party now set out on their westward journey. On about July, 1540, they rode into what is now called Cherokee County, Alabama. That night they camped near the Coosa River. The next morning they traveled on along the Coosa then across the Tallapoosa River. Following the Tallapoosa River to Alabama, they slowly made their way down the Alabama River, but that is another story.


     Not long after the massacre at Fort Mims, a council was called by Red Eagle. The Chief had been told that Colonel Claiborne’s men were camped near the holy ground and were getting ready for an attack. The Creek braves sat around the circle in their war clothes. The spies had come in and the chief was giving orders for the battle.

     The Indians could not believe that the white men would be so foolish as to attack the holy ground. It was the one place in which all Indians were safe from harm. They believed that if a bullet struck an Indian when he was on holy ground, it would split in two and fall harmlessly to Mother Earth and that if the white man put his foot on the holy ground he would fall dead on the spot. How could it be that the white man would dare walk on holy ground? The Indians could not understand it but they prepared for battle.

     Red Eagle knew that the holy ground would not protect them this time; it was no safer than any other ground. He did not believe such foolish things, but he knew that the other Indians did believe this, so he sent the women and children and old ones of the tribe to a place of safety outside the holy ground. Lilla Beazley, with an old woman servant, was sent with them.

     Claiborne’s men swept into the holy ground at sunrise and with their guns shot down the Creek Indians by the hundreds. The Creeks believed that the bullets could not hurt them so they did not fight. A few of the frightened warriors escaped into the forest.

     Red Eagle, finding himself alone, rode swiftly into the middle of the river and towards the river bank with the white soldiers. He rode right past them with the white soldiers close at his heels, shooting at him.  There were hundreds of bullets all around him as he rode on with his horse headed straight for the high banks of the river. As the horse reached the edge of the river, Red Eagle urged him on and to the great surprise of the white men, the horse, with his rider, jumped from that high bluff down into the water below. As the white soldiers reached the edge of the bluff, Red Eagle was seen riding his horse up the other side of the river bank. He gave one loud scream and said, “We have the power of the Great Spirit,” and then rode swiftly into the woods.


     The French commander was very eager to make friends with the Lower Creek Indians. The tribe of Indians was very warlike, and the French would rather have them as friends than as enemies. Fort Toulouse was in the heart of that part of the country in which the Lower Creek lived. The English, who lived in Georgia, and who were the enemies of the French, had gained the friendship of the Creeks. The French commander decided that he would do everything he could to get the Creeks to leave the English and join the French. So he invited the Chief of the Creeks, who called himself the Emperor of Coweta, to visit Fort Toulouse.

     The Emperor of Coweta was only a boy of eighteen but he felt as important as if he was the ruler of the world. When the invitation came from the French commander, the Emperor sent word that he would come. He called together the great elders of the tribe and ordered them to get ready for the journey.

     At Fort Toulouse, the French were very busy getting ready for their guests. The French soldiers polished their guns until they shone in the sunlight. The men of the settlement brought in all sorts of wild game for the feast. The wives of the settlers prepared the feast.

     Just before the Emperor reached Grey’s Ferry, which was just below the present town of Wetumpka, a French officer, Bossu, by name, went forth to meet the honored guest. Bossu took the Emperors hand and told him that he was welcome. That was the signal for the soldiers to fire the salute of honor. When the noise of the cannon roared out in the woods, the Emperor of Coweta felt very proud and happy. He thought even better of himself than before and rode into the fort looking and feeling very important.

     The Emperor was dressed in grand style. On his head he wore a crest of black plumes; his coat was scarlet and was trimmed with shinning lace. A white linen shirt seemed to be his greatest pride, for he wore it with the bottom on the outside of his trousers. The dressed up Emperor was riding a splendid horse and was followed by his braves.

     The commander made a speech of hearty welcome and did everything that he could to make the visit a happy one. The second day, at ten o’clock, all the French officers put on full uniform and paraded before the Emperor.

     At noon that day, the French and the Indian officers dined together. The Emperor took his seat with a calm and superior manner. He did not know what to do with the knives and forks at his plate. He seemed greatly embarrassed. A friend helped him out of his trouble, however, by seizing in his hands the breast and backbone of the turkey and breaking it in two with a swift jerk.

     “The Master of Life made fingers before knives and forks were made,” he said.

     Just behind the Emperors chair stood his body servant, who kept watching the yellow mustard the white eyes ate with on their roast. “What is it that they eat with their meat?” he asked. A soldier politely handed a spoonful of the hot mustard to the Indian who swallowed it eagerly. He regretted his act in a moment, for the mustard began to burn him. With a wild whoop and a wilder movement of his arms, the red man danced about, shouting that he was poisoned. The commander finally made the Indian see that he was not poisoned and quieted him with a drink. The Indian, however, never again seemed interested in the strange foods that the white eyes ate.

     Later on, the Emperor of Coweta and his braves, returned to their homes on the Chattahoochee River and for many a day they entertained their friends by telling of the strange ways of the white eyes.


     General Jackson was marching his army through Alabama and was defeating the Indians in many places, like the holy grounds. In this march, the brave, Lemuel P. Montgomery, gave his life in battle against our brothers, the Creeks. With our lands taken and only a few of our brothers unbeaten, the Creek Indians laid down their arms at the feet of General Jackson.

     The general said, “It was just like putting salt in an open cut, to each and all shall mercy be shown, except to one, proud Red Eagle.”

     At General Jackson’s side stood a serious, gray haired man. It was Lilla Beazley’s father.

     How it happened that one day, Lilla slipped away from the women and children in the secret hiding place and went close to General Jackson’s quarters. As she peeped from behind the trees, she saw the general and the gray haired man in honest conversation. She quickly saw that the gray haired man was her dear father, whom she thought was dead. With her heart beating loudly, she slipped back to her place with the old women. There stood Red Eagle, the hunted chieftain.

     Red Eagle’s face was tired and worn and Lilla’s heart was filled with pity. She quietly went up to him and put her hand in his. Then she spoke softly to him, “my father lives, Chief Red Eagle. I saw him not an hour ago. I heard his voice, and I forgive you.”

     Chief Red Eagle bent his tired head. He put his arms about the maiden, and then he said, “Chief Red Eagle must give himself up to the White Wolf. He must give himself up to General Jackson. He must either do this or let the women and children starve.”

     Then he turned and walked swiftly away towards the camp of General Jackson. Without the least fear, Red Eagle marched into the presence of the general while the soldiers shouted. “It is Reed Eagle, kill him, kill him.” Red Eagle said to the general, “I ask no mercy for myself. You can kill me if you wish but I come to beg you to send food to the women and children, they are starving in the woods.”

     Red Eagle stood with folded arms and looked into the general’s eyes. Jackson was so taken by Red Eagle walking into his camp, he said, “Would you believe that an Indian can be so brave as to walk into my camp?”

     “Go, chieftain, go. I will not kill you just to make you a hero among your people. I spared your life.” White Wolf stepped before the Indian, “What of my daughter?” he asked. “Where is she?” Before Red Eagle could answer, Lilla Beazley ran from behind some trees into her father’s arms.

     Not long after this, Lilla Beazley and Red Eagle were married, in the circle, the holy man of the village blessed the circle and the spirits were called and they were married. Red Eagle did not fight against the white settlers anymore and was beaten into becoming a loyal citizen. He and his wife lived together for many long years.

     It is interesting to know that Red Eagle spent a year with President Jackson in his home, the Hermitage, near Nashville, Tennessee. General Jackson once said that Red Eagle was the bravest Indian he had ever found.



     The priest of the summer is gone and now the priest of the winter is here. The village is getting ready for the day of the Totem.

     My mother said, “Red Wolf, go into the great mountain and get meat for the day of the Totem. Be sure you give the blessing to the spirits before the hunt. Be sure you return within three moons and don’t be late.”

     Red Wolf was getting his bow and arrows to go hunting when Big Bear came up with Little Snake. They asked, “Where are you going, Red Wolf?” “My mother told me to go into the mountain and get meat for the day of the Totem.” “Can we go hunting with you?” “Yes,” said Red Wolf. Big Bear said, “When will Running Fox be back?” Red Wolf said, “He will return before the day of the Totem.” Little Snake said, “Where did he go?” Red Wolf replied, “He went to the village of peace, he will be back soon.”

     So they went north to look for meat. That afternoon, Little Snake said, “Look, there is the Shaman of the Horn.” Red Wolf said, “Where are you going, Shaman?” The Shaman of the Horn said, “To the village.” “Where are you boys going?” Red Wolf said, “My mother told me to go to the mountains to get meat.” The Shaman said, “Did you bless the spirits?” “We will,” said Little Snake. The Shaman said, “We will now.” He made a circle in the snow and the Shaman asked for the blessing of the spirits. He then said, “Be sure you are back before the spirit of the moon rests the third time” and Big Bear said, “We will be back before then.”

     So they went north to look for meat. The first day out the hunting was very good and the snow was falling very hard. When the three young braves came upon a new cabin that must just have been built, Red Wolf said, “I did not know the cabin was here, we must go. My father said we must stay away from the white eyes.” “But Red Wolf, it will not hurt to take one little look, then we will go to the village.” “Alright, just a fast look then we will go.” The boys moved so they could see in the window of the cabin. About the time they were looking in the window of the cabin, an old white eye came around the end of the cabin. He said, “Hold it right there, Indian. What do you boys want here?” Red Wolf said, “White eye, we have been hunting in the great mountain and we did not know that a cabin was built here.” The old white eye said, “I have a hot fire inside, come in and warm your selves. We do not have much food but my wife will fix you what we have to eat.” Red Wolf said, “Yes.”

     So the boys followed the old white eye into the cabin. The old man said, “This is my wife, Mrs. Harmon.” I told these young Indian boys they could warm themselves and eat some of our food with us. “But father, we are just about out of food.” “That’s alright, mother,” he said. So the old woman fixed each one of the boys some of the food and put it on the table. The boys began to eat with their hands and the old woman said, “You should use the spoons to eat with.” Big Bear asked, “Red Wolf, what is a spoon?” He turned to Little Snake and said, “I remember the Shaman of the Horn saying that one time when he was talking about the white eyes, that they used the spoon to eat the food with.” Little Snake then asked, “What is wrong with your hands, are they hurt?” Red Wolf replied, “My father said the white eyes did funny things like that” and Red Wolf said, “My father said they pray to a god that they killed.” Big Bear said, “Why do they kill their gods?” The old man said, “We did not all kill our gods.” Red Wolf said, “How can you kill a god?” The old man said, “They really did not kill him Little Snake, the white eyes speak with a fork tongue. Big Bear, the great spirits make all things and gave us Mother Earth and the spirits to watch over us.” Big Bear said, “I am glad I am a Cherokee and not a white eye. I do not understand the white eyes.” The old woman said, “It is not the way it sounds, I know it’s hard for you to understand because you boys are wild and unschooled.”

     “Red Wolf, you have to be schooled to kill your god. I am glad I am not schooled for the Great Spirit would take revenge. He would send the shadow dancers against anyone who tried to kill him. Red Wolf said that’s why the white eyes are always after the land for themselves. They kill their gods and everyone they see. They have to get everything for themselves.” Little Snake said, “Why do the white eyes have to take the lands for themselves and kill everything on it? Is that why they killed their god?” The old man and the old woman said, “Since you said that, you may be right, since I think about it, we do. We just may be the wild ones. Your families must be good people. I would look forward to meeting them someday.” The boys just looked at each other. Little Snake said, “Big Bear, Red Wolf, do you know what they are talking about?” Big Bear and Red Wolf said, “Sometimes they sound like they have been in the Shaman of the Horn’s sour weed, we will have to ask the Shaman about this when we get to the village.”

     The boys said, We must be going, my mother is waiting for the meat we got.” The old man and woman said, “I hope you boys will come again to see us.” Red Wolf said, “We must go.” The old man and woman closed the door to the cabin and the boys started up the path to go to the village. Red Wolf said, “Wait.” He turned around and took one of the slabs of meat back to the cabin. He went and placed it by the door of the cabin. Big Bear and Little Snake said, “What are you going to tell your mother?” “Maybe I help save the white eyes god with the slab of meat. It is what the great spirits would have me to do.”

     The boys got to the village and Red Wolf’s mother said, “Was hunting so bad that my son got no meat?” “No.” “Where is it,” she asked. “I gave it away.” “You gave the meat away, to whom did you give the meat, to the white eyes?” “Are you hurt,” she asked. “No, they let us warm and they gave us the last of their food, so I gave them the slab of meat, mother. The white eyes said that some of the white eyes kill their god, why do the white eyes kill everything, even their god?” Red Wolf’s mother said, “I do not know of these things, when your father returns you are to tell him of these things and what you have done. The Great Spirit will be happy with what you did. Now you boys come and eat.” Little Snake asked, “Do you have a spoon” and Red Wolf’s mother said, “What are you talking about, Little Snake? What is wrong with you?” Red Wolf, have you been to see the Shaman of the Horn?” “No mother.” You boys sound like you have been in his sour juice, now eat.”



     My name is Billy James Chance, I was born in Louisville, Alabama, my father, and grandfather and great grandfather are Cherokee and Creek Indians.

     My great, great grandfather left the Indian lands in North Carolina in 1835 and moved south into the upper Chattahoochee River Valley to keep from being sent to the mid-west reservation. When he got into upper Georgia, he hunted, trapped and fished to live and at times he would do jobs for the white men for food or money. After his family was killed by the white men in North Carolina he, his wife Elizabeth and his two children moved west into Alabama where they had six more children and one of whom was my next grandfather, Joseph Carter Green, who lost sight in one eye while serving in the Civil War, but I will get to that story later. One day a trader said, “Indian, how would you like to go along and help with the pack mules, you may have food and clothing for your woman and kids.” “Of course,” said my grandfather. He had been wishing he might get work because it was not easy for an Indian to get work, so he went with the trader. The next day he was riding through the wilderness of Alabama, driving a team of pack horses before him.  When the pack train reached the lower Chattahoochee River Valley, the trader told my grandfather, “Just ahead is where we will be doing the trading with the Indians.” My grandfather walked around until he found a Creek Indian with some rabbit skins to trade. He told the trader that this Indian wished to trade with them. The Indian could understand my grandfather and what he was saying because the Creek and the Cherokee’s had been trading with each other for a very long time. We called each other brothers but the white men did not know what was being said, so they learned to trust my grandfather and what he said to the other Indians.

     He had been away from Elizabeth and the children and was looking forward to returning home, for he was trying to build a log cabin for his wife and children to live in. This cabin is still standing in Barbour County, Alabama today.

     To tell you a little about Alabama, there was not a railroad in Alabama or in the United States when Alabama became a State in 1819; in fact, this state was nearly fifteen years old when the first railroad west of the Allegheny Mountains was finished. This railroad was only forty miles long and ran between Tuscumbia and Decatur.

     The man who had this railroad built was a cotton planter who lived near Florence, Alabama. The planters of this part of Alabama used the Tennessee River as a waterway, but they could not ship things by water farther than Florence because of the shoals in the river. So when the man who built the railroad heard of a new way of moving goods that were being used in Pennsylvania, he decided to make the trip to that state and find out about the new railroad.

     He left Florence on horseback and rode all the way to Pennsylvania where the first railroad train in the United States was run. The Pennsylvania railroad was only twenty miles long and was very crude, but over this unfinished line miners were hauling coal.

     If these people can move coal with such a train, we can move cotton the same way. So he built a railroad in Alabama.





     In the days of old, the Shaman of the Horn had his medicine lodge out in the forest away from the village. The Indians were always being beaten or killed by the white eyes.

     Little Snake and the Shaman of the Horn had gone to the lower part of Shooting Creek to spear fish and Little Snake always said that the fish just jumped out of the water onto the spear of the Shaman of the Horn. They had many fish cooling in the waters of Shooting Creek and Little Snake said, “Well, since you got most of the fish I will have my old woman smoke the fish to eat today. We better be getting back for I have something I have to do for the old woman.” The Shaman of the Horn said, “You do not do as much for her as she does for you,” and the Shaman of the horn made funny sounds. Little Snake said, “I do a lot for the old woman,” and the Shaman said, “How many times have you smoked fish for her or when was the last time you made soft leather with your mouth to make a dress for her? I don’t remember the last time you gave birth to one of your children. What did you say you had to do for your old woman? We must go, it is getting late.”

     So they returned to the medicine lodge and the Shaman of the Horn said, “Would you like a drink of water before you go?” and Little Snake said, “Yes, I would.” He laid the fish down on some leaves and Little Snake drank his water. Then he said, “I must be going,” and he ran off towards the village at Shooting Creek.

     Not long after Little Snake had gone, five white eyes came to the medicine lodge of the Shaman of the horn. One white eye said, “Look at this dirty Indian, he smells like a dog.” Then they began to hit him and break up the medicine lodge.

     About this time, Little Snake said to himself, “I forgot the fish,” and he turned around and ran back to get them at the medicine lodge. As he got close to the lodge, he heard loud sounds coming from where the medicine lodge was. He slowed down to see what was making these sounds. He could see the white eyes breaking up the lodge. He turned around and ran very fast to get Red Wolf and the warriors in the village.

     Little Snake came to the village and called to Red Wolf. He said, “The white eyes are breaking up the Shaman of the Horn’s medicine lodge, they are going to kill him.” Red Wolf called to the warriors, “Bring your bows, the white eyes has the Shaman of the Horn. We must get him back.” Red Wolf and the warriors ran to the place where the medicine lodge was. They surrounded the lodge and when Red Wolf looked he could not believe his eyes. Little Snake said, “Look, Red Wolf, look at the shadow dancers, they have these white eyes rolling around on the ground of the Mother Earth like little children.”

     Red Wolf walked slowly towards his friend, the Shaman of the Horn. Little Snake came and said, “Do you need help my brother? I should have known that you would have all the help you needed. What do you wish us to do with these foolish white eyes?”  The Shaman of the Horn said, “When they are done playing in the dirt of Mother Earth and her shadow dancers are finished with them, you can have our warriors take them from our lands. They will not return to the lands of our people again.”

     Red Wolf called to the warriors, “Do as the Shaman of the Horn said, and do them no harm. Take them from our lands,” and Red Wolf said, “White eyes, remember what you have seen with your eyes, never come here again,” and the warriors took them away.

     Red Wolf said, “My brother, I know that you can take care of yourself but when Little Snake said they were breaking up your medicine lodge, I came at once. I believed that I would find the spirit gone from your body.” The Shaman said, “I have been here a long time. I have seen my father and your father cross over to the other side. I have seen may of the old ones Passover and so will you and I in time. My friends, Red Wolf and Little Snake who does so much for your old woman, do you think she will fix the fish or do I need to call the shadow dancers to fix them?” Little Snake said, “Alright, I will fix them, come on.” Red Wolf and the Shaman of the Horn made loud sounds and placed their arms around Little Snake as they walked back towards the village.



     The lands into which DeSoto had now come were ruled by a mighty chief whose name was Tuscaloosa. The name Tuscaloosa means Black Warrior, this chief was as big and strong as his name sounded.

     Now Tuscaloosa did not go forth to welcome DeSoto and his men with feasting and music, as the chief of the lands of Coosa had done. Instead, he sat upon his throne, surrounded by his warriors and waited for DeSoto to come to him. The throne was covered with woven grass matting and there was a cushion on which the chief sat. Over the throne was a sun shield made of deerskin, which was painted all over in stripes of many colors.

     DeSoto thought that Tuscaloosa would come out to welcome him as the chief of the lands of Coosa had done. When Tuscaloosa did not appear, DeSoto sent a messenger to tell the chief of the arrival of the party. Mosooso, the messenger, rode a very fine horse. As he came before the chief, he made his horse do a number of tricks.

     Tuscaloosa pretended that he did not see the messenger and looked straight at him. Mosooso rode back and forth, all the time his horse was prancing and arching his neck. Tuscaloosa did not seem to see him at all. Mosooso was forced, therefore, to ride back to his master and tell him of his bad fortune. Then DeSoto got upon his own horse and rode into the presence of Chief Tuscaloosa.

     As DeSoto came near the chief, Tuscaloosa arose and told him that he was welcome. Tuscaloosa seemed to understand that he was to be made a prisoner by the white eyes. He folded his great arms and stood waiting silently.

     DeSoto rode before him. One of his men led a very fine horse which Tuscaloosa was to ride and another carried a beautiful red robe which he gave to the waiting chief.

     Tuscaloosa put on the red robe, then he mounted the largest horse DeSoto owned, yet so tall was the powerful chief that his feet almost touched Mother Earth.

     Away rode the strange party, DeSoto and his men, with the big chief in their midst. Tuscaloosa, dressed in the red robe, rode in silence, sitting erect and proud in the saddle. For many days the party rode towards the west, going in the direction of the village of Mauville.

     At last they reached the village of Mauville, where they were met by the people who welcomed them. Music and merry making were on hand. DeSoto and his men entered into the pleasures of the people of the village. Tuscaloosa sat in the midst of the merry makers but he did not make merry with them. After a few days he asked to be freed. He was allowed to go and he marched away with his head held high and entered the lodge of a friendly Indian.

     Later in the day, DeSoto sent word that dinner was ready and invited Tuscaloosa to join them in the meal. The chief refused, saying, “If you leader knows what is best for him, he will take himself and his band out of the lands of Tuscaloosa.”

     The messenger returned to DeSoto with these words but DeSoto paid no attention to the warning, even after he knew that the Indians were getting ready to fight.  He called his men around him and said to them, “We will set a trap for Tuscaloosa. He cannot escape DeSoto and his band of one hundred brave men.”

     When DeSoto approached Tuscaloosa with the soft words which he had planned to use, the big chief gave a signal and DeSoto and his band were attacked from every side by Indian warriors. A terrible battle took place. Tuscaloosa was slain with five hundred of his brave warriors. DeSoto lost many of his brave men and he lost his supplies and the valuable gifts of the friendly Indians.

     In spite of his great losses, DeSoto gathered his men together and continued the journey towards the west. Later he came to the banks of the Mississippi River, called the Father of Waters. It is said that DeSoto did not know that he had discovered the great Mississippi River, but we know that he was the first white eye to stand on the banks of this mighty stream.


     The warm air of the priest of summer blew softly across the head waters of Shooting Creek. I, Little Snake, was sent by the Otter to get the Shaman of the Horn and to give him the bad news of the death of his old friend, Red Wolf, who was killed by the white eyes at the dawns early light. The Otter is the son of Red Wolf and he is taking this very hard, the death of his father and the chief of our village. Red Wolf would never give into the white eyes. They said the day would come that they would kill him and they did.

     Not long ago, Chief Red Wolf sent the Otter west to look for a place in the lands of the Cherokees, near the lands of our brothers, the Creeks. Red Wolf had made talk of moving the village west, near the river, the Tennessee, which was in the western part of the Cherokee lands. Now our chief will not have to move.

     I see the camp of the Shaman of the Horn. He comes here every warm time, when the priest of the sun is hot. “Is that you Little Snake? Can’t you find the right path to the village?” Shaman of the Horn and the Otter sent me to you. “What is wrong? Our chief and your friend were killed at a little after dawns light this morning by the white eyes. He had gone for his morning run. They got him in their crossfire near Shooting Creek. Come, we must go at once. He went to his lodge and said, come old woman, the Wolf has been killed and his spirit is in the dark side. We walked fast along the path back to the village, the Shaman of the Horn blew the sands of the maze and cedar into the air, giving praise to the spirits, when there before my eyes, walked the shadow dancers with the Shaman of the Horn.  They danced up and down the path as the Shaman of the Horn prayed, telling them that the Wolf was in the dark side. When some of the shadow dancers went away, the others went on dancing with the Shaman of the Horn, but before we reached the village, the other shadow dancers returned, carrying the spirit of the Wolf to the other side, to be empowered by the prey gods. They danced, carrying the spirit of the Wolf all the way to the village.

     The Shaman of the Horn said, “Otter, you will become the chief of the village now, I have sent the spirit of the Wolf to the lands of the Totem, the shadow dancers, when dancing to the prey gods with the spirit of Red Wolf. Otter, he is now with the chief, his father, Running Fox. They are now sitting around the story fires of the prey gods. Soon he will return to his tomb and you can call him to the great circle. Now we must bless the circle and begin the ceremony to make you our new chief, for the spirits have said that your name will be said around the story fires for many moons to come and the armies of the white eyes will hunt you in the mountain lands of our people. Otter, we must go to the circle now, the Mothers of the Longhouse and the elders wait. Come, my chief.”


     There were bad feelings between the Creeks and the white settlers at Fort Mims. William Weatherford, an Indian chieftain, had sworn to punish the whites after the Battle of Burnt Corn. Weatherford, who called himself the Red Eagle, was a big Creek who feared no white man. He was light hearted and dressed himself in gay clothing, eagle feathers, dyed red, decorated his head. His hunting coat was green and was trimmed with many tassels. He wore red leggings and shoes of deerskin. In his wampum belt, he carried a scalping knife, a shining tomahawk and the stones with the spirits of the Totemism.

     Lilla Beazley’s mother was a Creek princess and her father was a brave white man who belonged to the settlement at Fort Mims. The mother had died when Lilla was just a baby and the father had reared her into womanhood. His greatest pleasure was to make Lilla happy and she loved him dearly. Lilla liked to walk in the woods outside the fort where there were many wild flowers. She loved trees and the wild things of the forest. She believed in Totemism, so she often slipped out of the fort against her father’s wishes to roam about in the woods to be close to Mother Earth, which she loved.

     As she strolled through he woods, she met the Indian chieftain, Red Eagle. He thought Lilla was the most beautiful maiden he had ever seen. Lilla grew to love the Indian brave, whose very name filled the hearts of the white settlers with fear.

     One day, Lilla was swinging in a grape vine that hung from a tall tree outside the fort. She was singing happily, for thoughts of her lover filled her heart. She did not think of the dangers around her. She heard the breaking of a twig and turned to see Red Eagle, her lover coming down the path towards her. He said to her, “Why do you sit outside the fort? Do you not know that the Creeks are making ready to drive the white man into the sea? Our braves who lost their lives at Burnt Corn must be avenged. You know the Indians law is blood for blood. Even now our warriors are gathering around Fort Mims.”

     But Lilla answered, “I know full well the red man is my father’s foe but surely my mother’s daughter will be safe from Indian hatred. The best Indian blood flows in my veins. It was my grandfathers who gave your tribe its dwelling place. Besides, I thought that Eagle Chief had stopped his fighting and that there was soon to be peace.”

     “There can be no peace, Lilla,” said Red Eagle, “Until the white wolf has paid with his own blood for the braves who died at Burnt Corn. Fly with me to the holy ground. There you will be safe from harm. Fort Mims will be destroyed but you will be safe.” Lilla Beazley stepped back, anger blazed from her dark eyes.

     “No, no,” she cried, “I will never marry you. You plot against my dear father, the White Wolf, as you call him. Though I love you, I will stay with my dear father. If famine or death comes, it will find me by my father’s side.”

     Then Lilla Beazley ran, weeping, towards the gates of the fort. Red Eagle ran after her but at that moment the sound of a gun was heard and a bullet whizzed past his head. Lilla’s father, who had hidden himself to watch over his daughter, had come very near ending Red Eagle’s life.

     Old Beazley was a skilled huntsman and a fearless fighter whom was said to love nothing on earth except his motherless daughter. He growled curses upon his poor aim and went to find his unhappy daughter. In their little corner of the fort, he found Lilla weeping bitterly.

     “Death to the dog, don’t cry your sweet eyes out.” was all that he said to her.

     He had given his consent once to Lilla’s marriage to Red Eagle and had felt some pride that so noble a chieftain should seek his daughters hand in marriage. That was before the fighting at Burnt Corn, where seven Indian braves were killed. Now a war was near and old Beazley’s pride had turned to hatred.

     Full of anger at his daughter’s tears, old Beazley went to the commander of the fort. “We should be watchful this night,” he said, “The Indians are gathering in the woods just back of the fort.”

     The commander was rather proud that he was in command and he answered, “You are looking for an attack, are you? He who looks may find what he seeks.”

     The five hundred people within the fort passed an uneasy night. They wished that the commander would not be so careless about leaving the gates of the fort open. They thought that old Beazley knew that the Indians were gathering behind the fort, however, the night passed quietly.

     At noon the next day, there came a fearful cry, “To arms, to arms.”

     Hundreds of Indians rushed upon the helpless people in the fort, almost everyone was killed, only a few escaped. Lilla Beazley, though hurt, was one of them.

     Red Eagle took the wounded girl safely to his hut in the forest. He cared for her for many days as though she were his sister until at last she grew better. Red Eagle did everything that he could to comfort the girl. He explained to her that he did not kill her father. She wept bitterly at the mention of her dear father’s name, for she thought that he had met a cruel death at the hand of Red Eagle.

     Old Beazley was not dead; however, he had escaped with a few injuries. He believed his daughter slain and his grief was pitiable indeed. Old Beazley had gone for safety to a neighboring village. As he went about the village he could speak of nothing but his hatred for the red man.

     As soon as he could travel, he went to General Jackson and told the story of the massacre at Fort Mims. It was he who acted as guide to General Jackson and his men as they marched to put an end to the Creek nation and to bring more crimes on the Creek Indians in Alabama, Georgia and other parts of this country.



     I, long ago, crossed the great river, riding across the plains west of the great river, trying to lose myself but only finding that a man cannot lose something that is a part of him.

     I said to myself one morning, after a long time on this great land, “Chance of the Creek, it is time for you to go home. If you are to meet death, then meet death in the lands of the Creeks.”

     I still had this emptiness and hate for the red coats who attacked my village and killed many of my brothers, took the life of my wife and son. I do have good times that I remember of my wife and son.

     I took my horse and rifle and headed east from the far southwest. Once again I was headed for land I did not know about. After many moons, I found myself in a land covered in water and mud. The land was like that of our brothers, the lower Creek Indians.

     I found a dry spot, so I stopped and made camp, for I really did not know which way to go. I could tell where east was but how was a man to move in this land of mud. For the first time in my life, I was lost, so I fixed a large rattler that I killed and gave thanks for his spirit and fixed some roots to with it. Over the morning hours, I found myself burning with fever. I tried to sit up but could not. I finally passed out. I really did not know how many moons had passed when I came to. I opened my eyes but I was not able to see very clearly but I could tell that I was in someone’s lodge. I laid there for a long time, unable to get up, then this voice of a woman said, “Drink this.” I opened my eyes again, at first believing that I was dreaming. She said, “You wil live. Where are you from and what are you called?” I answered, “I am Chance of the Creek Indians, east of the great river.” She said, “Yes, we have heard of the Creeks. They are a great people.” I said, “Who are you?” “What tribe are you?” She replied, “We are the people of the swamp, we have been called by many names, but the people of the swamp will do.” She looked after me till the chief came and said, “You can stay until you are well., then you will leave the swamp and not return and we will say no more.” Then the chief said to the woman, “When he is well, take him to the eastern end of the swamp and give him food for five moons and say no more to him.”

     The woman said, “The lady that walked must have taken a liking to you, for the chief is not so giving most of the time.” When I was finally well and able to stand, the woman said, “It is time to go.” “Can I have my rifle?” She said, “When we get to the eastern edge of the swamp.” I replied, “Where is my horse?” “We turned your animal loose, he cannot walk in the mud of the swamp” she said. “Get in the canoe.” In about two moons we reached the eastern side of the swamp. She said, “This is where I will leave you now” and Chance said, “What name are you called by?” and she said, “They call me Swamp Hog, Chance of the eastern Creeks, I have a feeling that we will meet again someday. I believe that the lady that walks will see to that, go in peace, my friend and let the lady












           In Alabama you will find the Pea River, the largest tributary of the Choctawhatche is formed in Bullock County. In the 1700’s it was all part of what today is call Barbour County this also took in all of Russell County, but today they make up 3 counties. I was born in Barbour County Alabama as was my father and his fathers. Back to the river; it runs southeast of Union Spring’s and flows generally southwest for about 128 miles to join the Choctawhatchee  near Geneva in Geneva County a short distance north of the Florida state line. The Pea River sub-watershed encompasses 1,542 square miles and sits just west of the Choctawhatchee mainstream. It flows 68 miles to Elba, then south for about 30 miles to the west of Samson then gradually turns east and dips slightly into Florida before joining the Choctawhatchee River at mile 91.7 south of Geneva. 93% of the sub-basins in Alabama and 7% in Florida.

       Fisheries in the Pea River were assessed by Scott Mettee in 1970. He found 47 of the total 129 species found in the Choctawhatchee basin. The Pea River is the only habitat for the green sunfish in the basin.

      If you move south from Horseshoe Bend you would have come to the village of Eufaula, and not to far from there you would have come to the Indian Creek Village. 

     Our Village was near where you enter the Little Indian Creek and the Big Sandy Creek. There are many streams nearby such as Beaver Dam, Big Creek, Bluff Creek, Bowden Mill Creek, Buckhorn Creek, Bucks Mill Creek, Eightmile Creek, Flat Creek, Hays Creek, Holly Mills Creek, Little Indian Creek, Mims Creek, Pages Creek, Panther Creek, Pea Creek, Perote Creek, Richland Creek, Sand Creek, Silers Creek, Stinking Creek, Walnut Creek, Whitewater Creek, and Big Sandy Creek.

     Our Forefather choose this place because it was a way to get from one place to another by water, plus the creeks supply fish and wild live for our people, and the forest gave us trees for our lodge, and being locate between two creek make it easy to defend if we were under attack by though who would hunt or destroy us with violence.

     I lived there for 11 year when I was very young, I loved it, there never been any place like it , Great fishing and hunting, the air was clean and fresh and the bird would sing but now it is only a dream of the past. That was what Indian Creek Village was a long time ago, I will soon turn 70 years old , and all that is left is a vision from long ago.




 Principal Chief James Billy Chance

 Indian Creek Tribe Chickamauga Creek & Cherokee Inc.











     In 1812 the United States Government need to build Forts along what they call the Federal road running from Washington to New Orleans on the Gulf of Mexico. But this was anything but a road, it was more like a path and you would have to take your on life in your on hand to travel this road, ifs it was not road agents,  then it was the Chickamauga Cherokee and Creek Indians, for hundreds of miles this so call road was push up with brush so this path was known more than about 3 foot wide in most place, it was a very un-safe way to travel from the north to the south, that is why most people that could afford it when by ship, but it took a long time by ship.

        In 1810 they started to built Fort Mitchell, it was less than a mile to the Chattahoochee River close for support and supply by river, and just across the river was the State of Georgia which was Cherokee lands.

       On the hill overlooking the fort was the place our people the Indian Creek Tribe Creek would camp when they when too the fort to trade in the Blockhouse at Fort Mitchell, on the old Camp Grounds our people would make their camp fires , the warrior would play Stick Ball , they would dance our dances around the fires , our medicine people would do our ceremony's.

       And their some of our people were laid to rest, in 1810 Cherokee Indian Tom Green was a Scout a sign to Fort Mitchell, you fine some in the cemetery there, in 1993 my Father R.D. Chance was laid to rest in the National V.A. Cemetery , Back in the 1970's Chief James Billy Chance own a Farm on Highway 24 in Fort Mitchell, Alabama and the old 1840 Crowell -Whitaker Log Cabin use to set on the hill on his farm , it was donated to the Fort Mitchell History Society , and they in turn donated it to the National Cemetery and park .

       It is kind of funny when I go there, to see the old cabin setting their, when I no it use's to be all most 12 miles away from where it set's now, it make you stop and think why would someone built a cabin 12 miles away from where the fort was, when in those days that is a half a day’s ride to the fort by Horse, by foot would be a day walk, them I found that the Whitaker was part of the Green family, them it make sense, being part of the Green Family them they did not have to worry about the Creek Indians.

       This part of our web site is donated to the old Fort Mitchell and the History of our people, the Creek and Cherokee.




    Chief James Billy Chance










    The history of the Chickamauga Cherokee started long before Dragging Canoe jumped to his feet at a meeting his father Chief Atakullakulla had called in 1775. The Chickamauga at that time were only Cherokee, and had always carry the fight to protect the Cherokee Nation, but from meeting as far back as 1756 there had been talk of moving in the ways of the white man. And even Dragging Canoe as a 12 year old boy knew it was his duty to fight for and defend the lands of the Cherokee. It was the Law of the Cherokee that no one can sell, trade or giveaway the lands of the Cherokee, if so you would be put to death.

    Dragging Canoe wished to be a warrior so bad that he took and pulled a fully loaded war canoe into the water because his father told him it was the only way he could be a warrior, so he did just that, he pulled it into the water full loaded in front of all the warrior’s so his father had no choose in the matter but to keep his word.

    Dragging Canoe listened to his father talk of what he had seen in the lands across the great waters when he was taken to England, and the White king father told him they would have to pay their own way back to the New World if they wish to go home. He talked about all the people, that there were more than the stars in the heaven, of all the villages with so, so many lodge's more than the eyes can count.

    Young Dragging Canoe from before he was ever 12 years old listened to what his father had to say, he knew that one day we had hoped the white men would not be willing to travel beyond the mountains. Now that hope is gone. They passed the mountains, and have settled upon Cherokee lands. They wish to have that usurpation sanctioned by treaty. When that is gained, the same encroaching spirit will lead them upon other land of the Cherokees. New cessions will be asked. Finally the whole country, which the Cherokee and their fathers have so long occupied, will be demanded, and the remnant of the Ani-Yunwiya, The Real People, once so great and formidable, will be compelled to seek refuge in some distant wilderness. There they will be permitted to stay only a short while, until they again behold the advancing banners of the same greedy host. Not being able to point out any further retreat for the miserable Cherokee, the extinction of the whole race will be proclaimed. Should we not therefore run all risks, and incur all consequences, rather than submit to further laceration of our country? Such treaties may be all right for men who are too old to hunt or fight. As for me, I have my young warriors about me. We will have our lands

     If Dragging Canoe had not died in 1792 fighting for what he believed in and for what the Cherokee had always believed in up to that time, and if he was still here today he would say, these treaty's the white man has ask us to sign and agree to, they will do away with, and they did in the late 1880's, which they called the end of the Treaty period. He would tell you the time would come when they will kill our people for because they are doing our Ceremony', and they did, (Wounded Knee), and passed laws to stop these ceremonies until the 1930's, before we could do them again. He would tell you hundreds of reasons, and they would all be true. He would tell you that our own people who choose to follow the white man’s way, would wage their war of words to finish what was once so great and formidable people, that there will be no place for the remnant of the Ani-Yunwiya, (The Real People ),

 At that time the white man will have won, there will be no more Ani-Yunwiya.

      This is what Dragging Canoe would have to tell you if he was still here. A people whose job it was to fight for and to defend this land for thousands of years will be no more. Why; because the one's in Oklahoma, the White Man got to them, and they sold all of us out, the warning he gave us was not enough, we never knew depredation, the laying waste and plundering, or depreciate the express disapproval and belittling of people and plain discrimination against a race of people to a point they wish them remove from the face of Mother Earth. They are getting close to winning this war that has changed into a war of words, which they have always been the master of. They live by words that they can break, we live by our hearts, and are easily fooled. But this war has been going on for a very long time from the early 1700, they changed the name to the Creek War, and then the Seminole War, but no matter how you wish to try to re-spell it or say it, it was and still is and will always be the Chickamauga War. Dragging Canoe told you it was going to happen this way and it did, the writing is on the winds of time, only by changing the way people think can we have any chance to turn this around. After the meeting Dragging Canoe, and many of his follower went on the war path thoughout North Carolina, Georgia, Kentucky, Tennessee, Alabama, Virginia, and as far North as Ohio, with Chief Little Turtle, Chief Doublehead, Benge, John Watts, The Wolf, Glass, Turtle at Home, Richard Justice, Billy Bowleggs Halpatter Micco (born 1795 War Chief under Chief Phippe in Alabama), The Otter, Billy Bowleggs Halata Micco (born 1810 in Florida who was a Seminole). In battle in the North under Chief Little Turtle in 1790 that killed half of General Harmon Soldiers, less than a year later, Chief Little Turtle was in a battle with General

St. Clair and killed over half of his 1400 soldiers. We lost the battle against General Mad Wayne, because Chief Little Turtle pulled his warriors out of the fight. The Chickamauga returned South to Chattanooga, Tennessee still carrying on the fight for our Homeland. John Watts, after the death of Dragging Canoe in 1792, went against all Dragging Canoe wished and tried to talk a treaty with The United States, but it did not work. In time the Chickamauga, made up of the Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek, Shawnee and Cherokee moved in to Muscle Shoale, Alabama but General Andrew Jackson and his army from Tennessee moved against the Chickamauga. So they went deeper into Alabama to Indian Creek just south of Horseshoe Bend. They took warriors to aid Chief Red Eagle at Fort Mims killing around 498, and part moved back to Horseshoe Bend where Andrew Jackson came with his soldiers. Many died at Horseshoe Bend, many went underground, many moved into Florida, some went west, but the war went on. They changed the name from the Chickamauga War, to the Creek War, to the Seminole War, then the Billy Bowleggs War (Billy Bowleggs Halata Micco was born in 1810 a Seminole), but the truth of the matter is, it still was the Chickamauga War. We have never lain down before anyone, The Chickamauga were and still are the Greatest Fighting Force on Mother Earth.





  Principal Chief James Billy Chance











        The Chickamauga Towns in Alabama were found in the north east part of Alabama. They were

Turkey Town on the Coosa River, Willstown on Wills Creek, Coldwater Town near the Tuscumbia, Indian Creek Village on the Pea River at Little Indian Creek which was a Creek village under the Musogee Indian found in the old Barbour County, which today is part of Russell and Bullock Counties and Muscle Shoals in North West Alabama.

        You have Horseshoe Bend on Tallapoosa River and just South of their you have the Creek Town of Eufaula Town and just below it was the Indian Creek Village, and east by south near the Chattahoochee River was the town of Broken Arrow, North of Broken Arrow near the Chattahoochee River built in 1813 was Fort Mitchell Alabama and just across the river and 22 miles north is Columbus Georgia. And from Fort Mitchell South about 35 miles you will come to Clayton, Alabama where War Chief Halpatter Micco (Old Billy Bowleggs born 1795) when he was about 10 years old had climbed up into a tall  tree and watched 4 American soldiers kill a deer then took it and returned to the crossroad town where there was a store and trading post and only a very few cabins. This very young boy walks into this settlement of Clayton telling these soldiers that they had killed his deer and demanded it to be turned over to him, and the soldiers did. Halpatter Micco (Old Billy Bowleggs born 1795) took his deer and went on his way. When he returned to Eufaula Town the Chief of this Creek Town, who was Chief King Philip, had heard of what he had done at the town of Clayton with the soldiers and made him War Chief of the Town of Eufaula. In time the tribe had begun fighting among themselves, and this went on for some time until more and more white people began to move into Alabama. About this time a man by the name of Owens was killed by the soldiers at Fort Mitchell, and the white people in Alabama demanded the Governor to take action against the soldiers at the fort, so he sent his men to Fort Mitchell demanding that the solders be turned over to him for trial for killing Mr. Owens. About this time from the north east came these Church people demanding that the Creek Indians were being mistreated by the whites and demanded that more soldiers be sent to protect the Creek from the white people. Well in Washington DC President Jackson sent Mr. Keys to Alabama to look into this matter, and when he got to Fort Mitchell found that the Governor was pushing to try the Solders for killing Mr. Owens, and sent word to the President of this problem that seem to keep growing all the time, Jackson order the soldiers to go out and pick up the Creek for the killing, and War Chief Halpatter Micco said no way and chose to fight. And this set off the first Creek war in Alabama.




   Principal Chief James Billy Chance

As Long as Grass Grows

The Creek Indians encouraged by Indian agents including Benjamin Hawkins, developed written laws to earn fair treatment as a nation. Codifying rules in print, they hoped, would help reduce misunderstandings with white settlers hemming them in on all sides. The Creeks published a final version of their laws in 1824.

The statutes, among other prohibitions, declared:

"Murder shall be punished with death. The person who commits the act shall be the only one punished and only upon good proofs." (The Creeks considered self defense an acceptable exception to this law.)

"Stealing shall be punished as follows: For the first offense, the thief shall be whipped. For the second offense, [he] shall be cropped [ears cut]. For the third offense he shall be put to death.

"If any person gives false evidence by which another suffers punishment, he shall receive the same punishment, which he inflicted upon the one against whom he stated the falsehood.

"If a person should get drunk and want to fight, he shall be roped until he gets sober.

"Prisoners taken in War shall not be considered or traded as slaves, and it shall be the duty of the law makers to make them as free as ourselves.

"If any man should think proper to set his Negro free, he shall be considered a free man by the nation."

Rather than improve relations with whites, however, the Creek's willingness to allow freed blacks and runaway slaves to live among them added another layer of tension between the Indians and settlers. Slavery was banned in the early years of the colony of Georgia because founder James Edward Oglethorpe disapproved of the practice. As time passed, however, Georgia settlers came to envy the huge profits enjoyed by plantation owners in South Carolina where, from the earliest days of the colony, there were many slaves.

Georgia settlers agitated for change and eventually the prohibition against slavery was lifted. Both Georgia and Alabama became slave states under the United States Constitution, which allowed individual states to decide whether they allowed or banned slavery.

Relative peace reigned between whites and Native Americans in the early 1820's. A notable event in the Fort Benning region occurred when the aging Frenchman and Revolutionary War hero, Marquis de LaFayette, journeyed down the Federal Road in March 1825 on his triumphant tour of the country. LaFayette was one of the last, high-ranking officers of the Revolutionary War still alive.

LaFayette's entourage made its first stop on Fort Benning land at a trading post run by an American fur trader. The sky was just clearing after a spring storm when LaFayette's carriage, guarded by the Georgia militia, arrived. Auguste Levasseur, LaFayette's secretary, later wrote that there were two male Indians, "remarkable for their beauty and form," sitting near the doorway of the trading post. The youngest of the pair spoke impeccable English. His name was Hambly (or Hamley), and he was the son of Creek and white parents.

Hambly told the visitors that he had left Indian Territory when he was younger to be educated in the United States, but returned to Indian lands because he preferred the native way of life. He had apparently married several Creek women.

Levasseur and another man, known only as George, who were traveling with LaFayette carried on a cordial conversation with Hambly who invited them (and apparently the rest of the caravan) to visit his nearby home. There he demonstrated Indian dances for the visitors. Levasseur reciprocated by performing French dances.

Researcher John Metcalf recently pinpointed the probable location of the Hambly farm in an eastern quadrant of Fort Benning. In a report on preliminary investigations at the site, archeologists Christopher Goodwin and Eric Poplin state there were apparent remains of a fireplace and a group of sandstone boulders perhaps used as footing stones for a cabin.

LaFayette and his caravan traveled on to the banks of the Chattahoochee River where they encountered a large delegation of Creeks. At the Kasita crossing, the elderly Frenchman climbed upon a barge. Then young Indian men, first wading, and then swimming, dragged the barge across the river. On the other side, LaFayette climbed into a small carriage, and the Indians, using two long ropes, pulled the carriage up the steep slope.

Upon his arrival at Fort Mitchell, an elaborate welcoming ceremony unfolded. There were laudatory speeches in the Frenchman's honor by various dignitaries on the parade ground. The Creek chief, Little Prince, dazzled the crowd with a moving oration. He expressed joy at being able to welcome the honored war hero. After his speech, Little Prince explained to the visitors the lacrosse-type game sometimes called the "little brother of war." Indians then put on a demonstration game. It was one of the last times that local Native Americans and white settlers shared friendly relations.

Unrest had been smoldering for some months. Earlier in the year, the Creek chiefs gathered at the central Georgia community of Indian Springs to meet with Georgia government representatives. They negotiated at a tavern owned by William McIntosh, one of the five great chiefs of the Creek nation. McIntosh, whose father was a Scot and mother a Creek, was chief of the village of Kawita on the Alabama side of the river, not far from Fort Benning's boundaries.

McIntosh was a distinguished warrior, but his choice of foes did not endear him to some Native Americans. He had fought beside Andrew Jackson in the 1814 Battle of Horseshoe Bend against the Upper Creeks, so there was probably already mistrust between him and some of the Creeks. McIntosh had also fought with American forces against the Seminoles in Florida. More damaging to his reputation was the rumor that he was susceptible to being bribed by white officials. He was also suspect because he maintained cozy relations with the Georgia governor, George McIntosh Troup, his first cousin.

McIntosh signed his own death warrant when he put his name on the Second Treaty of Indian Springs on May 1, 1825, surrendering all remaining claims the Creeks had to Georgia land. The treaty relinquished Native American rights to land from the Flint River to the Chattahoochee River, including the area now occupied by Fort Benning and the city of Columbus. Reportedly, McIntosh accepted thousands of dollars in return for his signature. Outraged Upper Creek leaders angrily withdrew from the negotiations, branding McIntosh a traitor and the treaty a fraud.

The Creek council had earlier decreed that anyone who sold Creek lands without unanimous consent from the council would be sentenced to death. McIntosh knew he was in danger and sought protection from Georgia officials. No one, however, could save him from the fury of his kinsmen.

Soon after the signing of the detested treaty, Upper Creek warriors invaded McIntosh's plantation, near present day Carrollton, Georgia. They set his house on fire, and when McIntosh ran from the blaze, shot and stabbed him to death.

Violence spread as more settlers began moving onto land many Creeks still considered theirs. The Indians responded with raids on white settlements. The United States government ordered the 4th Infantry Regiment to Fort Mitchell to quell the unrest. The earlier fort had fallen into disrepair, and a new one was built.

The second Fort Mitchell was protected by wooden picket fences about 12 feet tall built in a square. Soldiers built blockhouses on two corners of the square where hiding sharpshooters could train their rifles on all approaches to the fort.

The controversy concerning the Indian Springs treaty escalated when Colonel John Crowell, an Indian agent, publicly criticized the document as invalid. Georgia's Governor Troup denounced Crowell, accusing him of inciting the Upper Creeks to kill McIntosh. He demanded that Crowell be suspended from office while there was an investigation of him. The governor also insisted that a survey of the Indian lands begin at once so that a lottery could be held to distribute free land to white settlers.

However, the Indians had an unexpected ally. The president of the United States, John Quincy Adams, also decided the treaty was flawed. He ordered a ban on surveying Indian lands until a new treaty could be negotiated. The president's action outraged Georgia's Governor Troup. He considered the president to be meddling illegally in the state of Georgia's affairs. Troup vehemently disagreed that there was anything wrong with the original treaty, saying that the Georgia legislature had already upheld the treaty's validity.

The president ignored Troup's protests and summoned Creek representatives to Washington, where a new treaty was hammered out more favorable to the Indians. Ratified by the U.S. Senate on April 22, 1826, this new treaty was scorned by Troup.

Backed by the Georgia legislation, the governor proceeded to launch the survey of disputed Indian lands anyway. His authority challenged, Adams dispatched a lieutenant with the U.S. Army, J. R. Minton, to hand deliver a dispatch to the Georgia governor, ordering him to halt the survey. The president also ordered the U.S. Attorney for Georgia to arrest anyone attempting illegal surveying on Indian land.

Adams wrote the Georgia governor, threatening to send in federal troops: "The pretensions under which these surveys are attempted are in direct violation of a treaty, and if persevered in, must lead to a disturbance of the public tranquility...the President will feel himself compelled to employ, if necessary, all the means under his control to maintain the faith of the nation by carrying the treaty into effect."

Troup's reply was equally blunt. If he wrote, the president ordered troops to Georgia to enforce the treaty, "From the first decisive act of hostility, you will be considered and treated as a public enemy... You, to whom we might constitutionally have appealed for our defense against invasion, are yourselves the invaders, and, what is more, the unblushing allies of the savage whose cause you have adopted."

The governor ordered two divisions of militia on alert to defend the state against a possible invasion by United States forces. Troup declared: "The argument is exhausted; let us stand by our arms."

With both sides threatening military action, powerful members of the U.S. Congress stepped into the breech. They persuaded the president that the dispute wasn't worth risking civil war. Armed conflict to protect Indian rights, they argued, wouldn't be politically palatable for many voters.

Adams backed down, ending a serious challenge to federal power. The president ordered the Indian agent, John Crowell, to negotiate yet another treaty. Signed November 27, 1827 at Fort Mitchell, the treaty committed the Creeks to relinquish all claims to Georgia. Settlement of the village that grew into the city of Columbus and the Fort Benning area could now legally proceed.

As a result of the treaty, most Creek settlement was banished from the state. While the Indians sometimes still hunted in unsettled areas south of Columbus, their villages were clustered on the Alabama side of the river.

Archeologists are gradually learning more about Indian life in the 1820's and 1830's. Accumulating knowledge, however, is painstakingly slow because few homestead locations have been uncovered, making each discovery important.

Archeologist Dean Wood identified one homestead site on Fort Benning. Located on the Alabama side of the Chattahoochee and north of Yuchi Town, the spot apparently once held the homestead of Jim Barnard, a Yuchi.

Barnard was probably the grandson of Timothy Barnard, a well-known frontier trader whose ancestors came from England. Timothy Barnard, like many traders, married an Indian, a Yuchi woman, with whom he had eight children. Besides his dealings with Indians, he was also a translator for various government officials and attended the signing of many significant treaties.

One of Timothy Barnard's sons was Timpoochee (John) Barnard, who became the principal chief of Yuchi Town and was also a renowned warrior and major in the United States Army.

Timpoochee Barnard commanded about 100 warriors who fought the Upper Creeks in 1814. Later, he lived near Fort Mitchell and was buried in the cemetery at the fort.

Although they are not certain, researchers speculate that Timpoochee Barnard may have been Jim Barnard's father, or in some other way closely related.

On land where Jim Barnard apparently once lived, archeologist Christopher Espenshade located numerous potsherds. However, unlike nearby white settlements, there were few nails or other artifacts found associated with housing construction. This may mean that Barnard built his log cabin by carefully notching logs and fitting them together, avoiding expensive nails and window glass.

While there were more than 100 pieces of EuroAmerican pottery found, native-made potsherds dominated at the site. Archeologists speculate that the Indians used the pottery they obtained from whites as a type of luxury item that they proudly displayed. While they probably served food on trade pottery, they still cooked and stored food in containers they made themselves, following precedents established by ancestors over many years.

Archeologists also found no Euro-American smoking pipes. They speculate that the Yuchi preferred their own handmade pipes to inexpensive, mass-produced ones. Even in the early l900's, the Yuchi living in Oklahoma were observed still making their own tobacco pipes.

Andrew Jackson was elected president of the United States in 1829, and with his inauguration the government stance toward Indians turned harsher. Jackson abandoned the policy of his predecessors of treating different Indian groups as separate nations. Instead, he aggressively pursued plans to move all Indian tribes living east of the Mississippi River to Oklahoma.

Early in his administration, Jackson addressed the Creeks and their allies:

Friends and Brothers - By permission of the Great Spirit above, and the voice of the people, I have been made President of the United States, and now speak to you as your Father and friend, and request you to listen. Your warriors have known me long You know 1 love my white and red children, and always speak with a straight, and not with a forked tongue; that I have always told you the truth. I now speak to you, as my children, in the language of truth-Listen.

Where you now are, you and my white children are too near to each other to live in harmony and peace. Your game is destroyed, and many of your people will not work and till the earth.

Beyond the great River Mississippi, where a part of your nation has gone, your Father has provided a country large enough for all of you, and he advises you to remove to it.

There your white brothers will not trouble you; they will have no claim to the land, and you can live upon it you and all your children, as long as the grass grows or the water runs, in peace and plenty. It will be yours forever. For the improvements in the country where you now live, and for all the stock which you cannot take with you, your Father will pay you a fair price.

Where you now live, your white brothers have always claimed the land. The land beyond the Mississippi belongs to the President and to no one else; and he will give it to you for forever....

Chief Speckled Snake gave this reply to Muscogee (Creek) Indians:

Brothers! When the white man first came to these shores, the Muskogee’s gave him land, and kindled him afire to make him comfortable. And when the pale faces of the south [the Spanish] made war on him, their young men drew the tomahawk and protected his head from the scalping knife.

But when the white man had warmed himself before the Indian's fire, and filled himself with the Indian's hominy, he became very large. He stopped not for the mountain tops, and his feet covered the plains and the valleys. His hands grasped the eastern and western sea.

Then he became our great father. He loved his red children; but said, 'You must move a little farther, lest I should by accident tread on you. With one foot he pushed the red man over the Oconee, and with the other he trampled down the graves of his fathers.

But our great father still loved his red children, and he soon made them another talk He said much; but it all meant nothing, but 'move a little farther; you are too near me.

I have heard a great many talks from our great father, and they all began and ended the same.

Brothers! When he made us a talk on a former occasion, he said, 'Get a little farther. Go beyond the Oconee and the Ocmulgee. There is a pleasant country.' He also said, 'It will be yours forever.'

Now he says, 'The land you live on is not yours. Go beyond the Mississippi. There is game. There you may remain while the grass grows or the water runs.

Brothers! Will not our great father come there also? He loves his red children, and his tongue is not forked.

At Jackson's request, the United States Congress opened a fierce debate on an Indian Removal Bill. In the end, the bill passed, but the vote was close. The Senate passed the measure 28 to 19, while in the House it squeaked by, 102 to 97. Jackson signed the legislation into law June 30, 1830.

Most Creeks angrily opposed the idea of moving west. They had no desire to leave their homelands where they had lived and buried their loved ones for many years. Many had apparently done exactly what the federal government had urged. They had adopted the ways of white settlers. They owned farms, and some owned slaves and raised cattle. Jim Barnard, for example, according to the Indian Census of 1832, maintained a household where there were three males, three females, and three slaves.

But the push to take over Indian lands was relentless. There were more negotiations with the Indians, leading to another treaty in 1832. The Creeks and their allies surrendered all claims to land in the Southeast in exchange for an Indian territory west of the Mississippi River. The Creeks received firm assurances, however, that any individual native who wished to remain in Alabama was free to do so. Those who chose to stay were to receive property they could farm. Anyone remaining on the land for five years would gain a property' title and become undisputed owner. The federal government also guaranteed to protect any Indians remaining behind and to remove any whites who trespassed on their farms.

For those wishing to migrate west, the government agreed to pay transportation costs and to finance their subsistence for one year.

The treaty ink was barely dry when the promises began unraveling. For years, many whites had hated, underestimated, stereotyped, and feared the Indians, feelings that were in some instances fueled by grief over friends or family killed in Indian wars. Now all the pent up hostility, coupled with a desire for free land, exploded into violence.

White settlers invaded Indian farmsteads, beating, murdering, raping, and driving the natives off their allocated land. Still other Indians lost their land to trickery. Speculators, many of them headquartered in Columbus, hatched various schemes to induce Indians to abandon their allotments.

Many natives fled into the swamps and deep forests. They struggled to survive by hunting and gathering wild foods. There were reports of Indians starving. Conditions degenerated so much that Andrew Jackson dispatched an envoy, Francis Scott Key (composer of the Star Spangled Banner), to Fort Mitchell to try to curtail the violence. But tragedy continued to unfold.

In the winter of 1834, a group of 634 Indians departed for the West. The weather turned bitterly cold, and the natives were so poorly clad that they had to stop repeatedly to build fires, sometimes seven times a day, to keep from freezing. By the time the group reached Oklahoma, 161 had died.

The assaults and swindles perpetrated against the Indians remaining in Alabama continued abetted by the state government, which did everything possible to pressure the Indians to leave. Native Americans were not allowed to testify in court and had no rights to file legal claims against their tormentors. There were few avenues to turn to for help.

Rumors swirled through the white settlements about impending Indian attacks. Members of the Georgia militia, in a state of high alert, erected a stronghold on what is now Fort Benning to defend against attacks in Georgia. Called Fort Twiggs, the post was apparently completed in March 1836, next to a spring about three quarters of a mile from the Chattahoochee. The stockade fences, about eight feet tall, enclosed an area of about 140 square feet.

There were two attached blockhouses, both two stories high, and a third blockhouse separate from the fort, not far from a horse corral, where guards were stationed around the clock. In a communication written to Georgia Governor William Schley, Major John Howard of the Georgia militia explained that he kept most fort supplies in one of the blockhouses "and my corn in the upper stories of the other two."

With about 180 soldiers stationed at the outpost, Major Howard thought he could fend off any attack and still allow half the force to scour the nearby countryside for hostile forces. He wrote the governor that soldiers should remain at the fort "until the emigration [of Indians] commences, to preserve peace, as well as to tranquilize the public's mind."

Howard alluded to how jittery white settlers in Georgia had become. "On Sunday morning last we had quite an alarm." Some settlers "came in from the other side of the river and informed us that the Indians had taken a flat [a boat] and had been crossing in the night in large numbers. Immediately [we] mustered 40 good and true men and returned to the place, where it was found they had, as usual," left no signs. "I continued the scout down the river until I had passed beyond all the trails they usually travel.... Satisfied that the information was from alarm only, I returned the same evening. Upon returning to the camp, [I] ascertained that the flat had only been turned loose by the Indians and had been found lodged against a snag after floating about two miles." Howard added, "Although I have no confidence in the frequent alarms, we attend to them all."

Within about a month, however, concerns about mounting Indian anger proved justified. Several chiefs, including Eneah Emathla, a Hitchitee Creek, and Jim Henry, a Yuchi or Hitchitee Creek, led warriors in attacks on white settlements. White settlers on both sides of the Chattahoochee were fleeing the area, while volunteers began pouring in from distant parts of Georgia to help squash the revolt.

Major General Armstrong Bailey of the Georgia militia wrote the governor on May 8 to report that a settler had been killed. The body of Mr. Flournoy "was pierced with two balls and the head scalped. The settlers in the neighborhood of the disaffected Indians have all left their plantations with their [slaves] and have come into this place [Columbus] and its neighborhood for protection. Several other murders are reported to have been committed yesterday and the day before. They [the murders], however, want confirmation (although some of them are believed).… I am clearly under the impression that the probabilities of an open rupture with a portion of the Creek Nation is daily increasing." Major General Armstrong Bailey hesitated to estimate how many natives would fight, but added, "Their number is beyond doubt rapidly increasing and will continue to do so until an efficient force is stationed in the territory of Alabama for the protection of her unfortunate and defenseless citizens."

Georgia Governor William Schley received various reports on the flight of whites to Columbus and Fort Mitchell. One communiqué from Russell County, Alabama indicated that the Indian agent, Colonel John Crowell, had advance word about the outbreak of war. According to the communiqué, Crowell "stated that Ne ha Micco, the principal chief of the lower Creeks, advised him and a few of his particular friends not to sleep in his house, but to go to the Fort [Mitchell] or leave the Nation for his people were determined to fight and he could not prevent it. This disposition was not confined to a few Indians but was a general feeling among them.... Two white men have been murdered, William B. Flourney and a Mr. Hobbs, and there are rumors of others. Ne ha Micco further advised Col. Crowell to inform the citizens of Columbus that they might expect an attack. The mayor has called a meeting of the citizens."

Another letter to the governor from a Georgia citizen, Levi Simpson, urged seeking a peaceful solution. "...the Indians are at this time almost in a state of starvation for want of bread... [the fighting] might be stopped by sending them something to eat by such persons as they know to be their friends… I think such a course of conduct might have a tendency to pacify them."

Simpson's pleas were ignored. The war was already out of control. More Georgia militia forces were ordered to reinforce Fort Twiggs. Not everyone, however, wanted to follow the orders. Major William Holland and others living in Randolph County wrote Governor Schley from Cuthbert, Georgia (just south of the Fort Benning area), complaining that they shouldn't be required to go to Fort Twiggs. "A great many men have deserted [this county] to [go] to other and stronger parts of the state. Most of our women and children are gone-some, God knows where - we don't [know]. We are commanded to march tomorrow to Fort Twiggs. . . . But what for?

"To guard Columbus and its vicinity, leaving our farms and [slaves], our sacred firesides to the ravages of ruthless savages.

"The weak are compelled to contribute their might to aid the strong. Is this impartial administration?... No, it is because men of influence with public officers entrusted with the management of Indian affairs live about Columbus and in that direction."

A dispatch from Colonel John Dill at Fort Gaines, Georgia (also south of the Fort Benning area) expressed similar reservations about diverting militia to Fort Twiggs. According to Dill's letter, most of the white settlements in the area, all the way north to Columbus, had been abandoned.

The Creeks and their allies did cross the Chattahoochee and attacked settlements in Georgia. Their most devastating assault came at the small community of Roanoke, just south of the Fort Benning area, in Stewart County, Georgia, where Hitchiti Indians killed 12 people and torched the town.

On at least two occasions, Creek Indians also attacked steamboats carrying troops through the Fort Benning area. The paddle wheeler Hyperion was about eight miles south of Columbus when Indians opened fire. The ship engineer and one or two others were wounded. The boat pilot, John Brockway, was shot dead and fell at the wheel, leaving the craft without anyone at the helm. The steamboat drifted aimlessly toward the Georgia side of the river before crewmen managed to wrestle it back under control and steer safely to Columbus.

In another incident, the Metamora was steaming upriver near Uchee Shoals with armed state militia aboard. The craft was patrolling the Chattahoochee to prevent Creek warriors from crossing to attack Georgia settlements. Suddenly, Indians began shooting from the river banks. The boat engineer, one of the first to be hit, fell dead on the deck. Several others were wounded.

Incensed, the boat captain decided to retaliate. He swung the vessel around, reversing course, toward where the first shots had been fired. As he steered alongside where the Indians were hiding, the soldiers on board opened fire. The Indians fired back, while the steamboat continued to float with the current. During the exchange of gunfire, there were several more casualties on board. Warriors also probably died, but numbers of Indian dead and wounded are unknown.

The captain decided against another engagement. He maneuvered the craft farther down river and docked so soldiers could carry the bodies of their comrades ashore and bury them.

Despite such intense battles, the days when the Creeks and their allies could mount a serious challenge to white settlers had long since past. The warriors were soon overwhelmed. Many were rounded up and held at

Fort Mitchell until they could be transported out of the area. Jacob Motte, an Army surgeon stationed at the fort, observed one cluster of 500 hostile Creeks being marched west. "The men were handcuffed two together, and a long chain passing between the double file connected them all together.… The women followed drowned in tears...."

A large group of Indians still at large tried to escape south to join forces with the Seminoles in Florida. Federal troops commanded by Winfield Scott, however, moved along the Chattahoochee and bottled up the Indians' avenue of retreat. Then, in June 1837, federal troops led by General Thomas S. Jessup captured the Creek chief, Eneah Emathla. Soon after, about a thousand of his followers surrendered.

A report written at the time described the scene as U.S. soldiers herded defeated Indian warriors toward Fort Mitchell. "On the 22 June, we witnessed the grand entree of a drove of [Indians] into the Fort, consisting of men, women, and children, in all about one thousand. Among them [were] 200 warriors… brought in… under the command of Major General Patterson... They were all ages, from a month old to a hundred years.... The old 'Blind King' as he is called [one of the chiefs], rode in the center of the throng... his feeling of hostility continued to rankle at his heart."

In July, about 2,500 Indians, including about 900 Yuchi’s, were loaded on two steamboats and carried down the Alabama River to Mobile. From there, they were transferred to the Indian Territory in present-day Oklahoma.

Federal authorities were about to remove a final group of Creeks when conflicts erupted anew with the Seminoles further south. A force of 700 Lower Creek warriors agreed to patrol in Florida in support of the American military. The warriors' families were kept in concentration camps where they were supposedly under federal protection.

However, mobs from Alabama and Georgia broke in and ransacked the camps. They raped women, killed some occupants, and carted others away to be slaves. Some of the Indians managed to flee into nearby swamps, only to be pursued by the Alabama militia, which killed many of them.

About 4,000 Creeks were moved to concentration camps in Mobile, Alabama in March 1837. When Lower Creek warriors returned from the Florida war, they found the remnants of their families in the camps. Soon, all the Indians from the camps were loaded onto steamships and sent to the Indian territory, whether they had supported the United States or not.

Often, the steamboats used to transport the Indians, either from Montgomery or Mobile, were seriously overcrowded. Many Indians were kept in chains. Conditions were unsanitary, resulting in many deaths. Others died when the steamboat Monmouth smashed into another boat and sank. Tustennuggee Emathla, who had been a staunch supporter of U.S. policy, was one of the 611 Indians on board. More than half the Indian passengers, 311, died, including four of Tustennuggee Emathla's children.

Once in Oklahoma, the Indians discovered that the promised provisions from the federal government never materialized. The lack of supplies was just one of many problems plaguing the Indians. Being uprooted from their homes and losing so many loved ones left them demoralized. Now they faced the physical and psychological strain of adapting to a wholly different environment. Starvation and various diseases, including smallpox, influenza, cholera, and others, took a heavy toll. Many more people died.

By 1838, the transport of Indians from Alabama and Georgia ended, although small groups of natives continued to migrate west for about 10 more years. A few Indians, some as slaves, remained behind. But the vast majority of native people, whose ancestors had thrived in the Southeast for thousands of years, were gone.

The overall effect of the Creek trail of tears was staggering. There were 21,792 Creeks in Georgia and Alabama in 1832. Twenty years after the "removal" ended, there were only 13,537 Creeks left in Oklahoma. Some 8,000 people apparently had died. Counted as a percentage of their population, the Creeks and related tribes suffered more deaths than the Cherokee in their own, far better known trail of tears.

The Fort Benning area on both sides of the Chattahoochee River soon lost its label as a frontier. The era of steamboats and cotton had begun.



"Whole Indian Nations have melted away like snowballs in the sun before the white man's advance. They leave scarcely a name of our people except those wrongly recorded by their destroyers. Where are the Delaware’s? They have been reduced to a mere shadow of their former greatness. We had hoped that the white men would not be willing to travel beyond the mountains. Now that hope is gone. They have passed the mountains, and have settled upon Tsalagi (Cherokee) land. They wish to have that usurpation sanctioned by treaty. When that is gained, the same encroaching spirit will lead them upon other land of the Tsalagi (Cherokees). New cessions will be asked. Finally the whole country, which the Tsalagi (Cherokees) and their fathers have so long occupied, will be demanded, and the remnant of the Ani Yvwiya, The Real People, once so great and formidable, will be compelled to seek refuge in some distant wilderness. There they will be permitted to stay only a short while, until they again behold the advancing banners of the same greedy host. Not being able to point out any further retreat for the miserable Tsalagi (Cherokees), the extinction of the whole race will be proclaimed. Should we not therefore run all risks, and incur all consequences, rather than to submit to further loss of our country? Such treaties may be alright for men who are too old to hunt or fight. As for me, I have my young warriors about me. We will hold our land." - Chief Dragging Canoe, Chickamauga Tsalagi (Cherokee) 1775


  Overhill Cherokee Treaty (Sycamore Shoals) The Transylvania Land Company aka Henderson Purchase, for most of Kentucky and Middle Tennessee, led by Richard Henderson of Hillsborough, North Carolina, the largest private real estate transaction in United States' history. For the price of 2,000 pounds sterling and 8,000 pounds in goods (about six wagon loads of goods worth), he purchased 20 million acres of land from the Cherokee Nation that included the Cumberland River watershed and lands on the Kentucky River (all of eastern and central Kentucky). During these dealings, the local settlers "purchased" the right to remain on the Cherokee land that they were living on in the Watauga settlement. One of the minor chiefs, Dragging Canoe, opposed to the selling of the Cherokee ancestral hunting grounds, warned the whites that they were purchasing a "dark and bloody ground". Dragging Canoe embarked on a war trail against settlements in Georgia, Virginia, and the Carolinas that would last for seventeen years. The Chickamaugan Cherokee were over 2000 warriors from the Carolinas, Northern Alabama, Georgia, Virginia, Tennessee, and Kentucky, and these warriors were mostly from the Wolf Clan of the Cherokee Nation, which were the warriors that protect the Cherokee Nation. These where the best warriors from this tribes, from the Cherokee were the Chickamaugan Cherokee Warriors, and from the Creek where the Red Lance Warriors. To help you understand what they where, (They were the same as the Cheyenne Dog Warriors of the Cheyenne Nation).


1776 March 1

Dragging Canoe went to Mobile AL to escort 2 British Commissioners, Cameron (Dragging Canoe's adopted brother), to bring a pack-train to the Cherokee back to Chota & give the British line regarding the upcoming American Revolution. Dragging Canoe was in full agreement

1776 April

Back at Chota. Alexander Cameron advises Indian neutrality because there were Loyalists among whites - Indians wouldn't know the difference. Cameron & Stuart sent letters to whites in the area. Text was altered to promote anti-Indian sentiment (fear of attack). Delegation of northern Indians, predominantly Shawnee (Cornstalk?), came to Chota requesting a Cherokee alliance against the American. Raven of Chota led an attack against the Carter Valley sentiments - burned houses, but Americans had withdrawn. Nancy Ward, a "Beloved Woman of the Cherokee, having been a warrior in her day, forewarned the Americans. Abram of Chilhowee led the attack against Fort Watauga where Sevier was at the time. Laid siege, nothing happened, so the Cherokee withdrew. Dragging Canoe went against the Holston River settlements, including the Eaton Station fort, but the Americans, forewarned by Nancy Ward, were prepared and successfully defended themselves. The Cherokee attacked, Dragging Canoe got shot through both legs; his brother, Little Owl, also got hit. The Cherokee withdrew for lack of numbers. Elders, including Oconostota, wanted to capitulate and offered a reward of 100 pounds on the heads of Dragging Canoe and Alexander Cameron. No record of known attempts on their lives. Dragging Canoe responded by withdrawing from the area and moved with his people to the Chattanooga area. Joined by survivors of the Lower Towns of South Carolina.

1776 July

700 Chickamauga attacked two American forts in North Carolina: Eaton's Station and Fort Watauga. Both assaults failed, but the raids set off a series of attacks by other Cherokee and the Upper Creek on frontier settlements in Tennessee and Alabama. The Wataugan’s, led by their popular and soon-to-be-famous Indian fighter John Sevier, repulsed the onslaught and swiftly counter-attacked. With the help of militia from North Carolina and Virginia, they invaded the heartland of the Cherokee and put their towns to the torch. 1776 At the outbreak of the American Revolution, leaves father up north Knoxville way, moves families downriver to Chickamauga & Chattanooga & Running Water Creeks ... Upper & Lower Towns. [At the beginning of the year Dragging Canoe wanted to attack the American whites, and vice versa. However, most of the Cherokee were opposed to war. British didn't want Indians involved. Letter was copied, faked, derisive comments about Indians added, copies circulated to stir up anti-British hate among Indians.] Dragging Canoe was very militant. Led an attack against whites, but didn't have much of a following. Rather than capitulate with the older men, he and other disillusioned warriors moved south to Chattanooga and Chickamauga Creeks and became the warlike Chickamauga where they waged war against the settlers for the next twenty years.

1776 September

Americans destroyed more than 36 Cherokee towns killing every man, woman and child they could find. [Rather than killing all the Indians, impromptu slave auctions on site were held to raise money for the White militia by selling Native women & children. ] 1777 Unable to continue resistance, the Cherokee in the area asked for peace. The Treaties of DeWitt's Corner (May) and Long Island (or Holston) (July) were signed at gunpoint and forced the Cherokee to cede almost all of their remaining land in the Carolinas.

Summer 1777

Dragging Canoe led raids against American settlers as far up as southern Virginia - killing whites whenever they could find them & burning houses. 1778-79 Most Cherokee fighters (made up of many half-bloods & mixed-bloods, predominantly white mix - French, English, Irish, Spanish & American-born whites, Cherokee, Shawnee, Creek, and free Blacks) went to Georgia to join the British forces in the Georgia campaign. 1776-82 Cherokee under Dragging Canoe joined the side of Great Britain in the American Revolution against encroaching white settlement. Cui Canacina (Dragging Canoe) and the Chickamauga refused the Overhill Cherokee Treaty and kept raiding the new settlements. At the outbreak of the Revolution, the Cherokee received requests from the Mohawk, Shawnee, and Ottawa to join them against the Americans, but the majority of the Cherokee decided to remain neutral in the white man's war. The Chickamauga, however, remained at war with the Americans and formed an alliance with the Shawnee. 1779 Evan Shelby attacks & burns 11 Chickamauga towns in the Chattanooga area while Dragging Canoe was in Georgia. Upon learning of this, Dragging Canoe & men come back, Cameron with British arms also. At this time a Shawnee delegation came down to see if the burning of the towns had broken the Cherokee resistance. Dragging Canoe assured them that he would keep fighting. Alexander Cameron recorded Dragging Canoe's speech, "We are not yet conquered." A group of Cherokee went to the Shawnee to fight with them and to assure consolidation of will. Likewise, a group of Shawnee, including Tecumseh's widowed mother, her son, Tecumseh, a boy, and his triplet brothers, including the later White Prophet, came down. Their older brother fought with distinction, but was killed a few years later in the raid on Nashville. Dragging Canoe then moves Chickamaugans in Lower Town of Running Water; Breath established Nickajack by Nickajack Cave - across the river from Little Cedar Mountain.


Dragging Canoe rescued the British Col. Brown in the American Siege of Augusta. Returned home. The Chickamauga remained hostile and renewed their attacks against western settlements in Tennessee, Alabama, and Kentucky. Continued his resistance, attacks Nashville against Cumberland settlements.

July 1781

After more fighting, the forced second Treaty of Long Island of Holston confirmed the 1777 forced cessions and then took more Cherokee land. 1782 The English give up the war effort and sued for peace. Dragging Canoe established contact with the Spanish in Florida and British in Canada and Detroit. 1790 Chickamaugans continued action with the Shawnee in the Ohio Valley: the Ohio Chickamaugans. 1790-94 "Little Turtle's War" of the Miami in the Ohio Valley with the Wyandot, Delaware, Huron’s, Mohawks and Dakota. After their initial victories. From here, they had the unofficial encouragement of the Spanish governments of Florida and Louisiana and continued attacking American settlements. One of these incidents almost killed a young Nashville attorney/land speculator named Andrew Jackson, which may explain his later attitude regarding the Cherokee.

1791 January

Chickamauga Chief Glass/"Catawba Killer" captured James Hubbard and 16 men building a blockhouse at Muscle Shoals, Alabama, and released them with a warning not to return.

November 4, 1791

Combined force of Chickamaugans, Creek, Anishinabe (Chippewa), Shawnee, Delaware, Iroquois, Miami, Wyandot and Dakota totally annihilated the forces of American Gen. Arthur St. Clair at the Wabash River in Indiana. "St. Clair's Defeat" - the biggest (number of white’s killed) united Native triumph in history.

1792 March 17

Chickamauga Chief Glass and Dragging Canoe's brother, Turtle At Home, waylaid the John Collingsworth family near Nashville, killing the father, mother, and a daughter, and capturing an eight-year-old girl. Returning to Lookout Town (near Trenton, Georgia), they held a scalp dance, grinding one of the scalps in his teeth as he performed. Dragging Canoe, recently returned from Mississippi after meeting with Choctaws, celebrated the occasion so strenuously that he died the following morning, age ±54 having devoted his life to saving the Cherokee culture and the beliefs that "we are not yet conquered". The reason for his death was a very small cut from a raffle ball on his side that went unattended and became infected. It was normal after each battle that the Chief and his warriors dance and gave thanks to Yowa (God, Creator) for a great victory. This would go on for several days and nights. Over many year he Hade Many Wounds, but this little Cut would finish him off. John Watts became War Chief of the Chickamaugan Cherokee Warriors at Dragging Canoe death and continued to lead the fight against the White Eyes until 1794, at which time he decided to try diplomatic efforts.


Today the Indian Creek Band Chickamauga Creek Inc. is a Teaching Council, we go to Schools, Colleges, clubs, Churches, or to anyone that will ask us to come and give a program. We are a non-profit organization, the ONLY time we ask for money is when we are asked to go a long distance to put on a program, then we need money to cover the cost of getting there and having a place for our people to stay. We pray to Yowa that He will watch over you and not place too many sharp stones in your path. Wado, Chief Little Red Wolf



The Sealy Indians

Date:  1492

     Long before the great ships came from across the great pond there lived a tribe of Indians called the Sealy Indians on an island just off the coast of North Carolina. These Indians would trade with the Cherokee Indians who all had a great fear of the Cherokee for they were great warriors. The Sealy had a very long history of trading with the Cherokee.

    When the first ships came to our lands, they feared the Cherokee, many died as they tried to land on the mainland and in time worked out an arrangement with the Sealy Indians on their Island. The Sealy would trade with the Cherokee and the people on these great ships would trade with the Sealy Indians.

     This went very well for a long time, until one day the Chief of the Sealy said I see where the great ships come from. That must be where England must be and we can make more by going out there where England is and cut out the middle man on the ships.

     All the Sealy began to work on building very large canoes and when they were finished they placed all their goods they had gotten from the Cherokee into the canoes with all their people and set out on the sea to find England. But in time they found themselves in the middle of the ocean; they could not see England and they could not see where they came from. Their whole tribe was lost on the sea. After days upon the great waters they began to think that they were all going to die until along came a great sailing ship and took all of them aboard.

     This great ship was on its way south to the islands, so they took all of the Sealy Indians south and they became the first slaves of America. This came about because of greed, the Sealy wished a bigger cut and tried to cut out the middle man, which cost them all in the end.

     We must all learn from what the Sealy Indians did, that if you let greed get in the way you will lose it all in the end,


Principal Chief James Billy Chance

Treaty of Savannah

May 21, 1733


Articles of Friendship and Commerce between the Trustees for Establishing the Colony of Georgia in America and the Chief Men of the nation of the Lower Creeks.

First. The Trustees bearing in their Hearts great Love and Friendship to you the said Head men of the Lower Creek Nation do engage to let their people carry up into your Towns all kinds of Goods fitting to trade in the said Towns at the Rates and Prices settled and agreed upon before you the said Head Men and annexed to this Treaty of Trade and Friendship.

Secondly. The Trustees do by these Articles promise to see Restitution done to any the People of your Towns by the People they shall send among you upon Proof made to the Beloved Man they shall at any time send among you That they who have either committed Murder, Robbery, or have bet or wounded any of your People or any ways injured them in their Crops by their Horses or any other ways whatever and upon such proof the said People shall be tryed and punished according to the English Law.

Thirdly. The Trustees when they find the Hearts of you the said Head Men and your People are not good to the people they shall send among you or that you or your People do not mind this Paper, they will withdraw the English favour from the Town so offending. And that you and your people may have this Chain of Friendship in your minds and linked to your hearts they have made fast their Seal to this Treaty.

Fourthly. We the Head Men of the Coweta and Cussita Towns in behalf of all the Lower Creek Nation being firmly persuaded that He who lives in Heaven and is the occasion of all good things has moved the hearts of the Trustees to send their Beloved men among us for the good of us our Wives and Children and to Instruct us and them in what is Streight do therefore declare that we are glad that their People are come here, and though this Land belongs to us the Lower Creeks yet we that we may be instructed by them do consent and agree that they shall make use of and possess all those Lands which our Nation hath not occasion for to use and we make over unto them their Successors and Assigns all such Lands and Territories as we shall have no occasion to use, Provided always that they upon Settling every New Town shall set out for the use of ourselves and the People of our Nation such Lands as shall be agreed upon between their Beloved Men and the head men of our Nation and that those Lands shall remain to us forever.

Fifthly, We the Head Men do promise for our selves and the People of our Towns that the Traders for the English which shall settle among us shall not be robbed or molested in their Trade in our Nation: and that if it should so happen that any our People should be mad and either kill, wound, beat, or rob any of the English Traders or their People, then we the said Head men of the Towns aforesaid do engage to have justice done to the English and for that purpose to deliver up any of our People who shall be guilty of the crimes aforesaid to be tryed by the English Laws or by the laws of our Nation as the Beloved Man of the Trustees shall think fit. And we further promise not to suffer any of the People of our said Towns to come into the limits of the English Settlements without leave from the English Beloved man and that we will not molest any of the English Traders passing to or from any Nation of Indians in Friendship with the English.

Sixthly. And we the Head Men for ourselves and People do promise to apprehend and secure any Negro or other slave which shall run away from any of the English Settlements to our Nation and to carry them either to this Town or the Savannah or Pallachuckala Garrison and there to deliver him up to the Commander of such Garrison and to be paid by him four Blankets or two Guns or the value thereof in other goods Provided such runaway Negro or other slave shall be taken by us or any of our People on the further side of the Ocony River, and in case such Negro or runaway Slave shall be taken on the hither side of the said River and delivered to the Commander as aforesaid then we understand the pay to be one Gun or the Value thereof. And in case we or our people should kill any such slave for resistance or Running away from us in apprehending him then we are to be paid One Blanket for his head by any Trader we shall carry such Slaves head unto.

Lastly, We promise with streight Hearts and Love to our Brothers the English to give no encouragement to any other White People but themselves to settle among us, and that we will not have any correspondence with the Spaniards or French. And to shew that we, both for the good of ourselves our Wives and Children do firmly promise to keep this Talk in our Hearts as long as the Sun shall shine or the waters run in the Rivers we have each of us set the marks of our Families.




Schedule of Prices of Goods agreed on Annexed.


Two Yards Strouds, Five Buckskins

One Yard Plains, One Buckskin weighing one pound and three quarters or Doeskins answerable

One White Blanket, Five Buckskins or ten Doeskins

One Blue Duffel Blanket, three Buckskins or Six Doeskins

A Gun, ten Buckskins or Twenty Doeskins

A Pistol, Five Buckskins or ten Doeskins

A Gun Lock, four Buckskins or Eight Doeskins

Four measures of Powder, one Buckskin or two Doeskins

Sixty Bullets, one Buckskin or two Doeskins

A White Shirt, two Buckskins or four Doeskins

A Knife, one Doeskin

Eighteen Flints, one Buckskin or two Doeskins

Three yards of Cadiz, one Doeskin

Three yards of Gartering, one Doeskin

A Hoe, two Buckskins or four Doeskins

A falling axe, two Buckskins of four Doeskins

A Large Hatchet, answerable or three Doeskins

A small Hatchet, one Buckskin or two Doeskins

A Brass Kettle, per pound one Buckskin or two Doeskins

Two Yards of Brass wire, a Doeskin

A Looking Glass, one Buckskin or two Doeskins

A Hat, Two Buckskins of four Doeskins

A Leathern Belt, one Buckskin or two Doeskins

One Dozen Buttons, one Doeskin


Treaty of The Holston

July 2, 1794


Historic context:
Repeated incursions by settlers had inflamed the Chickamauga Cherokee. Having been forced to resettle once during their lives, they decided to fight rather than allow settlers on their land. The treaty of the Holston officially ended the conflict.

Treaty text:

WHEREAS the treaty made and concluded on Holston river, on the second day of July, one thousand seven hundred and ninety-one, between the United States of America and the Cherokee nation of Indians, has not been fully carried into execution by reason of some misunderstandings which have arisen:

Article I.

And whereas the undersigned Henry Knox, Secretary for the department of War, being authorized thereto by the President of the United States, in behalf of the said United States, and the undersigned Chiefs and Warriors, in their own names, and in behalf of the whole Cherokee nation, are desirous of re-establishing peace and friendship between the said parties in a permanent manner, Do hereby declare, that the said treaty of Holston is, to all intents and purposes, in full force and binding upon the said parties, as well in respect to the boundaries therein mentioned as in all other respects whatever.

Article II.

It is hereby stipulated that the boundaries mentioned in the fourth article of the said treaty, shall be actually ascertained and marked in the manner prescribed by the said article, whenever the Cherokee nation shall have ninety days notice of the time and place at which the commissioners of the United States intend to commence their operation.

Article III.

The United States, to evince their justice by amply compensating the said Cherokee nation of Indians for all relinquishments of land made either by the treaty of Hopewell upon the Keowee river, concluded on the twenty-eighth of November one thousand seven hundred and eighty-five, or the aforesaid treaty made upon Holston river, on the second of July, one thousand seven hundred and ninety-one, do hereby stipulate, in lieu of all former slims to be paid annually to furnish the Cherokee Indians with goods suitable for their use, to the amount of five thousand dollars yearly.

Article IV.

And the said Cherokee nation, in order to evince the sincerity of their intentions in future, to prevent the practice of stealing horses, attended with the most pernicious consequences to the lives and peace of both parties, do hereby agree, that for every horse which shall be stolen from the white inhabitants by any Cherokee Indians, and not returned within three months, that the sum of fifty dollars shall be deducted from the said annuity of five thousand dollars.

Article V.

The articles now stipulated will be considered as permanent additions to the treaty of Holston, as soon as they shall have been ratified by the President of the United States and the Senate of the United States.

In witness of all and every thing herein determined between the United States of America and the whole Cherokee nation, the parties have hereunto set their hands and seals in the city of Philadelphia, within the United States, this twenty-sixth day of June, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and ninety four.

Done in presence of-




Oct. 2, 1798. | 7 Stat., 62. | Ratified April 30, 1802. | Proclaimed May 4, 1802.


Margin Notes

Preamble. Ante 29. (Treaty with the Cherokee, 1791.)

Peace and friendship perpetual.

Subsisting treaties to operate.

Limits to remain the same, etc.

Cession of territory.

Commissioners for running the line of the cession.

Consideration for the treaty.

Kentucky road to be kept open.

Indians may hunt on lands relinquished.

Notice of time for delivering annuities, etc.

Horses stolen to be paid for.

Oblivion of past aggressions.

The Cherokee agent to have a piece of ground.

Articles of a treaty between the United Stales of America, and the Cherokee Indians.

WHEREAS, the treaty made and concluded on Holston River, on the second day of July, in the year one thousand seven hundred and ninety-one between the United States of America, and the Cherokee nation of Indians, had not been carried into execution, for some time thereafter, by reason of some misunderstandings which had arisen:—And

Page 52

whereas, in order to remove such misunderstandings, and to provide for carrying the said treaty into effect, and for re-establishing more fully the peace and friendship between the parties, another treaty was held, made and concluded by and between them, at Philadelphia, the twenty-sixth day of June in the year one thousand seven hundred and ninety-four: In which, among other things, it was stipulated, that the boundaries mentioned in the fourth article of the said treaty of Holston, should be actually ascertained and marked, in the manner prescribed by the said article, whenever the Cherokee nation should have ninety days notice of the time and place at which the commissioners of the United States intended to commence their operation:
And whereas further delays in carrying the said fourth article into complete effect did take place, so that the boundaries mentioned and described therein, were not regularly ascertained and marked, until the latter part of the year one thousand seven hundred and ninety-seven: before which time, and for want of knowing the direct course of the said boundary, divers settlements were made, by divers citizens of the United States, upon the Indian lands over and beyond the boundaries so mentioned and described in the said article, and contrary to the intention of the said treaties: but which settlers were removed from the said Indian lands by authority of the United States, as soon after the boundaries had been so lawfully ascertained and marked as the nature of the case had admitted:
And whereas, for the purpose of doing justice to the Cherokee nation of Indians and remedying inconveniences arising to citizens of the United States from the adjustment of the boundary line between the lands of the Cherokees and those of the United States, or the citizens thereof, or from any other cause in relation to the Cherokees; and in order to promote the interests and safety of the said states, and the citizens thereof, the President of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate thereof, hath appointed George Walton, of Georgia, and the President of the United States hath also appointed Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas Butler commanding the troops of the United States in the state of Tennessee, to be commissioners for the purpose aforesaid: And who, on the part of the United States, and the Cherokee nation by the undersigned chiefs and warriors, representing the said nation, have agreed to the following articles, namely:


The peace and friendship subsisting between the United States and the Cherokee people, are hereby renewed, continued, and declared perpetual.


The treaties subsisting between the present contracting parties, are acknowledged to be of full and operating force; together with the construction and usage under their respective articles, and so to continue.


The limits and boundaries of the Cherokee nation, as stipulated and marked by the existing treaties between the parties, shall be and remain the same, where not altered by the present treaty.


In acknowledgement for the protection of the United States, and for the considerations hereinafter expressed and contained, the Cherokee nation agree, and do hereby relinquish and cede to the United States, all the lands within the following points and lines, viz. From a point

Page 53

on the Tennessee river, below Tellico block-house, called the Wild-cat Rock, in a direct line to the Militia spring, near the Mary-ville road leading from Tellico. From the said spring to the Chill-howie mountain, by a line so to be run, as will leave all the farms on Nine-mile Creek to the northward and eastward of it; and to be continued along Chill-howie mountain, until it strikes Hawkins's line. Thence along the said line to the great Iron mountain; and from the top of which a line to be continued in a southeastwardly course to where the most southwardly branch of Little river crosses the divisional line to Tuggaloe river: from the place of beginning, the Wild-cat Rock, down the northeast margin of the Tennessee river (not including islands) to a point or place one mile above the junction of that river with the Clinch, and from thence by a line to be drawn in a right angle, until it intersects Hawkins's line leading from Clinch. Thence down the said line to the river Clinch; thence up the said river to its junction with Emmery's river; and thence up Emmery's river to the foot of Cumberland mountain. From thence a line to be drawn, northeastwardly along the foot of the mountain, until it intersects with Campbell's line.


To prevent all future misunderstanding about the line described in the foregoing article, two commissioners shall be appointed to superintend the running and marking the same, where not ascertained by the rivers, immediately after signing this treaty; one to be appointed by the commissioners of the United States, and the other by the Cherokee nation; and who shall cause three maps or charts thereof to be made out; one whereof shall be transmitted and deposited in the war office of the United States; another with the executive of the state of Tennessee, and the third with the Cherokee nation, which said line shall form a part of the boundary between the United States and the Cherokee nation.


In consideration of the relinquishment and cession hereby made, the United States upon signing the present treaty shall cause to be delivered to the Cherokees, goods, wares and merchandise, to the amount of five thousand dollars, and shall cause to be delivered, annually, other goods to the amount of one thousand dollars, in addition to the annuity already provided for; and will continue the guarantee of the remainder of their country forever, as made and contained in former treaties.


The Cherokee nation agree, that the Kentucky road, running between the Cumberland mountain and the Cumberland river, where the same shall pass through the Indian land, shall be an open and free road for the use of the citizens of the United States in like manner as the road from Southwest point to Cumberland river. In consideration of which it is hereby agreed on the part of the United States, that until settlements shall make it improper, the Cherokee hunters shall be at liberty to hunt and take game upon the lands relinquished and ceded by this treaty.


Due notice shall be given to the principal towns of the Cherokees, of the time proposed for delivering the annual stipends; and sufficient supplies of provisions shall be furnished, by and at the expense of the United States, to subsist such reasonable number that may be sent, or shall attend to receive them during a reasonable time.

Page 54


It is mutually agreed between the parties, that horses stolen and not returned within ninety days, shall be paid for at the rate of sixty dollars each; if stolen by a white man, citizen of the United States, the Indian proprietor shall be paid in cash; and if stolen by an Indian from a citizen, to be deducted as expressed in the fourth article of the treaty of Philadelphia.—This article shall have retrospect to the commencement of the first conferences at this place in the present year, and no further. And all animosities, aggressions, thefts and plunderings, prior to that day shall cease, and be no longer remembered or demanded on either side.


The Cherokee nation agree, that the agent who shall be appointed to reside among them from time to time, shall have a sufficient piece of ground allotted for his temporary use.
And lastly, This treaty, and the several articles it contains, shall be considered as additional to, and forming a part of, treaties already subsisting between the United States and the Cherokee nation, and shall be carried into effect on both sides, with all good faith as soon as the same shall be approved and ratified by the President of the United States, and the Senate thereof.

In witness of all and every thing herein determined between the United States of America, and the whole Cherokee nation, the parties hereunto set their hands and seals in the council house, near Tellico, on Cherokee ground, and within the United States, this second day of October, in the year one thousand seven hundred and ninety-eight, and in the twenty-third year of the independence and sovereignty of the United States.

Thos. Butler,

Geo. Walton.


Nenetuah, or bloody Fellow, his x mark, [L. S.]

Ostaiah, his x mark, [L. S.]

Jaunne, or John, his x mark, [L. S.]

Oortlokecteh, his x mark, [L. S.]

Chockonnistaller, or Stallion, his x mark, [L. S.]

Noothoietah, his x mark, [L. S.]

Kunnateelah, or Rising Fawn, his x mark, [L. S.]

Utturah, or Skin Worm, his x mark, [L. S.]

Weelee, or Will his x mark, [L. S.]

Oolassoteh, his x mark, [L. S.]

Tlorene, his x mark, [L. S.]

Jonnurteekee, or Little John, [L. S.]

Oonatakoteekee, his x mark, [L. S.]

Kanowsurhee, or Broom, his x mark, [L. S.]

Yonah Oolah, Bear at Home, his x mark, [L. S.]

Tunksalenee, or Thick Legs, his x mark, [L. S.]

Oorkullaukee, his x mark, [L. S.]

Kumamah, or Butterfly, his xmark, [L. S.]

Chattakuteehee, his x mark, [L. S.]

Kanitta, or Little Turkey, his x mark, [L. S.]

Kettegiskie, his x mark, [L. S.]

Tauquotihee, or the Glass, his x mark, [L. S.]

Chuquilatague, his x mark, [L. S.]

Salleekookoolah, his x mark, [L. S.]

Tallotuskee, his x mark, [L. S.]

Chellokee, his x mark, [L. S.]

Tuskeegatee, or Long Fellow, his x mark, [L. S.]

Neekaanneah, or Woman Holder, his x mark, [L. S.]

Kulsateehee, his x mark, [L. S.]

Keetakeuskah, or Prince, his x mark, [L. S.]

Charley, his x mark, [L. S.]

Akooh, his x mark, [L. S.]

Sawanookeh, his x mark, [L. S.]

Yonahequah, or Big Bear, his x mark, [L. S.]

Keenahkunnah, his x mark, [L. S.]

Kaweesoolaskee, his x mark, [L. S.]

Teekakalohenah, his x mark, [L. S.]

Ookouseteeh, or John Taylor, his x mark, [L. S.]

Chochuchee, his x mark, [L. S.]


Elisha I. Hall, secretary of the commission, [L. S.]

Silas Dinsmoor, Indian agent to the Cherokees, [L. S.]

John W. Hooker, United States factor, [L. S.]

Edw. Butler, captain commanding at Tellico, [L. S.]

Page 55

Robert Purdy, lieutenant Fourth U. S. Regiment, [L. S.]

Ludwell Grymes, [L. S.]

Jno. McDonald, [L. S.]

Daniel Ross, [L. S.]

Mattw. Wallace, esquire, [L. S.]

Saml. Hanly, [L. S.]

Michael McKinsey, [L. S.]

Chas. Hicks, interpreter, [L. S.]

James Cazey, interpreter, [L. S.]

John Thompson, [L. S.]





June 29, 1796. | 7 Stat., 56. | Proclamation, Mar. 18, 1797.



Margin Notes

Subject to alterations of the third and fourth articles, as stated in the note.

Treaty at New York binding.

Boundary line.

President may establish a trading or military post.

Line to be run.

Trading or military posts to be established.

Chiefs to attend the running the line with Spain.

Boundary line with Choctaws and Chickasaws.

Prisoners to be given up.

Presents to the Indians.

Animosities to cease.

When to take effect.

Page 46

the government

of the A treaty of peace and friendship made and concluded between the President of the United States of America, on the one Part, and Behalf of the said States, area the undersigned Kings, Chiefs and Warriors of the Creek Nation of Indians, on the Part of the said Nation. a

The parties being desirous of establishing permanent peace and friendship between the United States and the said Creek nation, and the citizens and members thereof; and to remove the causes of war, by

a This treaty was ratified on condition that the third and fourth articles should be modified as follows:
The Senate of the United States, two-thirds of the Senators present concurring, did, by their resolution of the second day of March instant, “consent to, and advise the President of the United States, to ratify the Treaty of Peace and Friendship, made and concluded at Coleraine, in the state of Georgia, on the 29th June, 1796, between the President of the United States of America, on the part and behalf of the said States, and the Kings, Chiefs and Warriors of the Creek nation of Indians, on the part of the said nation: Provided, and on condition, that nothing in the third and fourth articles of the said treaty, expressed in the words following, ‘Article 3d, The President of the United States of America shall have full powers, whenever he may deem it advisable, to establish a trading or military post on the south side of the Altamaha, on the bluff, about one mile above Beard's bluff; or any where from thence down the said river on the lands of the Indians, to garrison the same with any part of the military force of the United States, to protect the post, and to prevent the violation of any of the provisions or regulations subsisting between the parties: And the Indians do hereby annex to the post aforesaid, a tract of land of five miles square, bordering one side on the river, which post and the lands annexed thereto, are hereby ceded to, and shall be to the use, and under the government of the United States of America.
“‘Art. 4th, as soon as the President of the United States has determined on the time and manner of running the line from the Currahee mountain, to the head or source of the main south branch of the Oconnee, and notified the Chiefs of the Creek land of the same, a suitable number of persons on their part shall attend, to see the same completed: And if the President should deem it proper, then to fix on any place or places adjoining the river, and on the Indian lands for military or trading posts: the Creeks who attend there, will concur in fixing the same, according to the wishes of the President. And to each post, the Indians shall annex a tract of land of five miles square, bordering one side on the river. And the said lands shall be to the use and under
United States of America. Provided always, that whenever any of the trading or military posts mentioned in this treaty, shall, in the opinion of the President of the United States of America, be no longer necessary for the purposes intended by this cession, the same shall revert to, and become a part of the Indian lands,’ shall be construed to affect any claim of the state of Georgia, to the right of preemption in the land therein set apart for military or trading posts; or to give to the United States without the consent of the said state, any right to the soil, or to the exclusive legislation over the same, or any other right than that of establishing, maintaining, and exclusively governing military and trading posts within the Indian territory mentioned in the said articles, as long as the frontier of Georgia may require these establishments.”

Page 47

ascertaining their limits, and making other necessary, just and friendly arrangements; the President of the United States, by Benjamin Hawkins, George Clymer, and Andrew Pickens, Commissioners whom he hath constituted with powers for these purposes, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate; and the Creek Nation of Indians, by the undersigned Kings Chiefs and Warriors, representing the whole Creek Nation, have agreed to the following articles:


The Treaty entered into, at New-York, between the parties on the 7th day of August, 1790, is, and shall remain obligatory on the contracting parties, according to the terms of it, except as herein provided for.


The boundary line from the Currahee mountain, to the head, or source of the main south branch of the Oconeé river, called, by the white people, Appalatchee, and by the Indians, Tulapocka, and down the middle of the same, shall be clearly ascertained, and marked, at such time, and in such manner, as the President shall direct. And the Indians will, on being informed of the determination of the President, send as many of their old chiefs, as he may require, to see the line ascertained and marked.


The President of the United States of America shall have full powers, whenever he may deem it advisable, to establish a trading or military post on the south side of the Alatamaha, on the bluff, about one mile above Beard's bluff; or any where from thence down the said river on

a See note at the beginning of the treaty.

Page 48

the lands of the Indians, to garrison the same with any part of the military force of the United States, to protect the posts, and to prevent the violation of any of the provisions or regulations subsisting between the parties: And the Indians do hereby annex to the post aforesaid, a tract of land of five miles square, bordering one side on the river; which post and the lands annexed thereto, are hereby ceded to, and shall be to the use, and under the government of the United States of America.


As soon as the President of the United States has determined on the time and manner of running the line from the Currahee mountain, to the head or source of the main south branch of the Oconee, and notified the chiefs of the Creek land of the same, a suitable number of persons on their part shall attend to see the same completed: And if the President should deem it proper, then to fix on any place or places adjoining the river, and on the Indian lands for military or trading posts; the Creeks who attend there, will concur in fixing the same, according to the wishes of the President. And to each post, the Indians shall annex a tract of land of five miles square, bordering one side on the river. And the said lands shall be to the use and under the government of the United States of America. Provided always, that whenever any of the trading or military posts mentioned in this treaty, shall, in the opinion of the President of the United States of America, be no longer necessary for the purposes intended by this cession, the same shall revert to and become a part of the Indian lands.


Whenever the President of the United States of America, and the king of Spain, may deem it advisable to mark the boundaries which separate their territories, the President shall give notice thereof to the Creek chiefs, who will furnish two principal chiefs, and twenty hunters to accompany the persons employed on this business, as hunters and guides from the Chocktaw country, to the head of St. Mary's. The chiefs shall receive each half a dollar per day, and the hunters one quarter of a dollar each per day, and ammunition, and a reasonable value for the meat delivered by them for the use of the persons on this service.


The Treaties of Hopewell, between the United States and the Chocktaws and Chickasaws, and at Holston between the Cherokees and the United States, mark the boundaries of those tribes of Indians. And the Creek nation do hereby relinquish all claims to any part of the territory inhabited or claimed by the citizens of the United States, in conformity with the said treaties.


The Creek nation shall deliver, as soon as practicable, to the superintendent of Indian affairs, at such place as he may direct, all citizens of the United States; white inhabitants and negroes who are now prisoners in any part of the said nation, agreeably to the treaty at New-York, and also all citizens, white inhabitants, negroes and property taken since the signing of that treaty. And if any such prisoners, negroes or property should not be delivered, on or before the first day of January next, the governor of Georgia may empower three persons to repair to the said nation, in order to claim and receive such prisoners, negroes and property, under the direction of the President of the United States.

a See note at the beginning of the treaty.

Page 49


In consideration of the friendly disposition of the Creek nation towards the government of the United States, evidenced by the stipulations in the present treaty, and particularly the leaving it in the discretion of the President to establish trading or military posts on their lands; the commissioners of the United States, on behalf of the said states, give to the said nation, goods to the value of six thousand dollars, and stipulate to send to the Indian nation, two blacksmiths, with strikers, to be employed for the upper and lower Creeks with the necessary tools.


All animosities for past grievances shall henceforth cease, and the contracting parties will carry the foregoing treaty into full execution with all good faith and sincerity. Provided nevertheless, That persons now under arrest, in the state of Georgia, for a violation of the treaty at New-York, are not to be included in this amnesty, but are to abide the decision of law.


This treaty shall take effect and be obligatory on the contracting parties, as soon as the same shall have been ratified by the President of the United States, by and with the advise and consent of the senate.

Done at Colerain, the 29th of June, one thousand seven hundred and ninety-six.

Benjamin Hawkins, [L. S.]

George Clymer, [L. S.]

Andrew Pickens, [L. S.]


Chruchateneah, his x mark, [L. S.]

Tusikia Mico, his x mark, [L. S.]

Inclenis Mico, his x mark, [L. S.]

Tuskenah, his x mark, [L. S.]

Ookfuskee Tustuneka, his x mark, [L. S.]

Clewalee Tustuneka, his x mark, [L. S.]


Tusikia Mico, his x mark, [L. S.]

Cussita Mico, his x mark, [L. S.]

Fusateehee Mico, his x mark, [L. S.]

Opoey Mico, his x mark, [L. S.]

   Broken Arrows:

Tustuneka Mico, his x mark, [L. S.]

Othley Opoey, his x mark, [L. S.]

Opoev Tustuneka, his x mark, [L. S.]

Oboethly Tustuneka, his x mark, [L. S.]


Euchee Mico, his x mark, [L. S.]


Osaw Enehah, his x mark, [L. S.]

Ephah Tuskenah, his x mark, [L. S.]

Tusikia Mico, his x mark, [L. S.]


Chehaw Mico, his x mark, [L. S.]


Othley Poey Mico, his x mark, [L. S.]

Othley Poey Tustimiha, his mark, [ L. S.]


Opoey Thlocco, his x mark, [L. S.]

Parachuckley, his x mark, [L. S.]

Tuskenah, his x mark, [L. S.]


Pahose Mico, his x mark, [L. S.]

Tustunika Chopco, his x mark, [L. S.]


Fusatchee Hulloo Mico, his x mark, [L. S.]

Tusikia Mico, his x mark, [L. S.]

Mico Opoey, his x mark, [L. S.]


Tallessee Mico, his x mark, [L. S.]

Othley Poey Mico, his x mark, [L. S.]

   Little Oakjoys:

Meeke Matla, his x mark, [L. S.]

   Hicory Ground:

Opoey Mico, his x mark, [L. S.]


Kelese Hatkie, his x mark, [L. S.]


Nenehomotca Opoey, his x mark, [L. S.]

Tusikia Mico, his x mark, [L. S.]


Opoey-e-Matla, his x mark, [L. S.]


Hosonupe Hodjo, his x mark, [L. S.]


Holahto Mico, his x mark, [L. S.]

Tustunika Thlocco, his x mark, [L. S.]


Pashphalaha, his x mark, [L. S.]


Spani Hodjo, his x mark, [L. S.]

Tustonika, his x mark, [L. S.]

   Upper Euphales:

Opoey, his x mark, [L. S.]


Chinibe, his x mark, [L. S.]

   Upper Cheehaws:

Spokoi Elodjo, his x mark, [L. S.]

Tustunika, his x mark, [L. S.]


Tuskeehenehaw, his x mark, [L. S.]


Knapematha Thlocco, his x mark, [L. S.]


Cusa Mico, his x mark, [L. S.]

Tusekia Mico Athee, his x mark, [L. S.]

Halartee Matla, his x mark, [L. S.]

Talahoua Mico, his x mark, [L. S.]

Page 50

Neathlocto, his x mark, [L. S.]

Nuckfamico, his x mark, [L. S.]

Estechaco Mico, his x mark, [L. S.]

Tuskegee Tuskinagee, his x mark, [L. S.]

Cochus Mico, his x mark, [L. S.]

Opio Hajo, his x mark, [L. S.]

Oneas Tustenagee, his x mark, [L. S.]

Alak Ajo, his x mark, [L. S.]

Stilcpeck Chatee, his x mark, [L. S.]

Tuchesee Mico, his x mark, [L. S.]


Cheea Hajo, his x mark, [L. S.]


Talmasee Matla, his x mark, [L. S.]


Tustincke Hajo, his x mark, [L. S.]

Okolissa, his x mark, [L. S.]

Cow-eta Matla, his x mark, [L. S.]

Coosa Mico, his x mark, [L. S.]

Fusatchee Mico, his x mark, [L. S.]

Pio Hatkee, his x mark, [L. S.]

Foosatchee Mico, his x mark, [L. S.]

Neathlaco, his x mark, L. S.]

Tuchabatchee Howla, his x mark, [L. S.]

Spoko Hajo, his x mark, [L. s.]


Tuskegee Tustinagee, his x mark, [L. S.]

Talmasa Watalica, his x mark, [L. S.]


Totkes Hago, his x mark, [L. S.]


Opio Tustinagee, his x mark, [L. S.]

Yafkee Mall Hajo, his x mark, [L. S.]

Oboyethlee Tustinagee, his x mark, [L. S.]

Tustinagee Hajo, his x mark, [L. S.]

Hillibee Tustinagee Hajo, his x mark, [L. S.]

Effa Tuskeena, his x mark, [L. S.]

Emathlee Loco, his x mark, [L. S.]

Tustanagee Mico, his x mark, [L. S.]

Yaha Tustinagee, his x mark, [L. S.]

Cunctastee Tustanagee, his x mark, [L. S.]


Coosa Tustinagee, his x mark, [L. S.]

Neamatle Matla, his x mark, [L. S.]


Chuckchack Nincha, his x mark, [L. S.]

Opoyo Matla, his x mark, [L. S.]

Lachlee Mat]a, his x mark, [L. S.]

   Big Tallasees:

Chowostia Hajo, his x mark, [L. S.]

Neathloco Opvo, his x mark, [L. S.]

Neathloco, his x mark, [L. S.]

Chowlactlev Mico, his x mark, [L. S.]

Tocoso Hajo, his x mark, [L. S.]

Hoochee llIatla, his x mark, [L. S.]

Howlacta, his x mark, [L. S.]

Tustinica Mico, his x mark, [L. S.]

Opoy Fraico, his x mark, [L. S.]

   Big Talassee:

Houlacta, his x mark, [L. S.]

Etcatee Hajo, his x mark, [L. S.]

Chosolop Hajo, his x mark, [L. S.]

Coosa Hajo, his x mark, [L. S.]


Chohajo, his x mark, [L. S.]


Tusticnika Hajo, his x mark, [L. S.]


Neamatoochee, his x mark, [L. S.]


Telewa Othleopoya his x mark, [L. S.]

Talmasse Matla, his x mark, [L. S.]

Niah Weathla, his x mark, [L. S.]

Emathlee-laco, his x mark, [L. S.]

Ottesee Matla, his x mark, [L. S.]

Muclassee Matla, his x mark, [L. S.]

Eufallee Matla, his x mark, [L. S.]


Cunipee Howla, his x mark, [L. S.]


Elospotak Tustinagee, his x mark, [L. S.]


Spoko Hodjo, his x mark, [L. S.]


Tustinagee Chatee, his x mark, [L. S.]


Spokoca Tustinagee, his x mark, [L. S.]

Othley-poey-Tustinagee, his mark, [L. S.]

Tuskeeneah, his x mark,


J. Seagrove, superintendent Indian affairs, C. N.

Henry Gaither, lieutenant-colonel commandant,

Const. Freeman, A. W. D., major artillery and engineers,

Samuel Tinsley, captain, Third sub-legion.

Samuel A llison. ensign, Second sub-legion.

John W. Thompson, ensign, First IJ. S. S. legion.

Geo. Gillasspy, surgeon. L. U. S.

Tim. Barnard, D. A. and sworn interpreter.

James Burges, D. A. and sworn interpreter.

James Jordan.

Richard Thomas.

Alexander Cornels.

William Eaton, captain, Fourth U. S. sub-legion, commandant at Colerain, and secretary to the commission.






























     It was a warm night in the mountains above Shooting Creek. Chief Red Wolf went to see the Shaman of the Horn. When Red Wolf got to the medicine lodge, the Shaman of the Horn was not there. Red Wolf just made himself at home. He and the Shaman of the Horn had been friends since childhood, even though the Shaman was just a little older than Red Wolf.

     In time, the Shaman of the Horn’s woman came and Red Wolf said, “Sister, where is the Shaman of the Horn?” and she said, “He will return soon. I will fix you something to eat for you look thin, doesn’t your woman fix food for you? How is your mother?” Red Wolf said, “She is old and soon she will pass to the other side. She asks about you from time to time.” “Tell her I ask about her,” and about that time the Shaman of the Horn returned. He asked, “Why have you come, brother?” Red Wolf replied, “I came to set in the circle with you and talk to the spirits.”

     In front of the Shaman of the Horn’s medicine lodge was the great circle. The Shaman went over and blessed the circle with the sage, cedar and cornmeal. He brushed Red Wolf and himself with the sage smoke and then they entered the great circle and were seated. The Shaman took the pipe and called the spirits to the circle and the spirits came, but not alone. From the forest came the wolf, the eagle and up from the ground of Mother Earth came the mole, the mountain lion, the badger and the bear. They entered the great circle and walked around and around, three times, in the circle. Then they sat around the fire in the great circle. The Shaman of the Horn’s wife said, “They talk in the great circle for many hours.” Then the wolf, eagle, mole, the great bear, the badger and the mountain lion came out of the circle and went away. After a time had passed, the Shaman of the horn and Red Wolf came from the circle and the Shaman’s woman asked, “Now brother, will you eat?” and Red Wolf said, “Yes.” So they all sat down on the ground and ate the food she had fixed.

     After they had eaten, Red Wolf and the Shaman of the horn’s woman and the Shaman sat around the fire telling stories that had been told to them by their elders and after a time had passed and the Shaman of the Horn, his woman and Red Wolf went into the medicine lodge and found a place on the floor across the room and went to sleep. The next morning Red Wolf returned to the village.



Transcripts                                                        (Inner Title)                                                        Library of Congress

                                                                 Public Records Office                                                      Washington, D.C.

Great Britain                                               Colonial Office                                                                    Mss. Division 203                                                                     Class 5

81 (old A.W.1. 284.)

Volume lettered:





                                                                                                                                                                             (p. 483.)

Extract from Mr. Alexander McGillivray’s Letter to Col. Brown, the Superintendent,dated Pensacola 13 May 1780.


     In consequence of General Campbell’s requisition, in eight days after I received it I collected all the Indians of my district that were come in from the woods about six hundred gunmen, and directed others to follow as soon as they came in, and in a short time after I came here I was joined by parties to the amount between eleven and twelve hundred men. Mr. McIntosh was accompanied by about two hundred lower Creeks, which together I think our department cut a pretty good figure, and I have the vanity to think such a respectable Indian force appearing so timely here had a very good effect. I believe a very sensible one as Don Galvez. His Manoeuvres since have shewed it, he sent a Flag here ‘tis said to request the General to dismiss the Savages, what answer was given I do not know, but the Vessel is detained.

 From every account we have got of Galvez, he has no intention of visiting this place ‘till he can have a fairer respect of Success which at this juncture may appear to him rather doubtful. About a fortnight ago he had embarked his coloured Battalions and Artillery from Mobile, and had dropt down the Bay near the Bar, where he lay ever since, the’ it is reported and generally believed he has taken a French leave.

p. 484

  I have been here since the last of March, / the Indians have been encamped ever since. The Spaniards are in great parties on this side of Moble Bay foraging &CB the Indians were very desirous of to harass them, but it was not judged proper to allow it.

   Owing to their being fed entirely upon salt provisions, the bad Water about Pensacola, sickness begins to spread among them, the planting season being far advanced they wish to return home soon, indeed it is unnecessary to keep them much longer. I think they have done very well –thre’ a desire of being serviceable they have acted much contrary to their usual customs.-

   If my Salary is fixed at 10/ p day, it will make me perfectly easy under that it will be impossible for me to act. I do assure you, Sir, since I have been in the service, I have not made a farthing of it, and unless some public accounts are paid, I am considerably in debt for the Kings Service. The promoting the King’s interest has been always my Study, and I think I am entitled now to be enabled to keep my usual consequence among my people, which while I have the favour of your friendship I think I can be certain of. My endeavours shall never be in any respect wanting to cause them to be in credit to you and to merit the protection and favour of his Majesty.

                                                                              I have ACA ACAACA

                                                                             Signed  AlexR MCGilliviray


Endorsed Extract of a Letter from / MR Alexander MCGilliviray /

Commissary in the Upper / Creek Nation to the / Superintendent -/

NO2 / In MR. Shaws Letter / of 9.TH June 1780 -





       After the Chickamauga warriors lost to General Mad Wayne on the Northern frontier in 1791 under Chief Little Turtle, General Wayne’s army was pushing hard and we had many wounded , taking one loss after another so the Chickamauga warriors moved to their strong hold in Northern Alabama making raids into Georgia, Tennessee, and in Alabama. By early 1813 part of the warriors had moved from Indian Creek village to aid Chief Red Eagle.

      Brigadier General Claiborne of the Mississippi Militia was in charge of the military in the region. He sent Major Daniel Beasley and about 170 men to defend Fort Mims. Major Beasley had no military wartime and was just a lawyer, but a close personal friend of General Claiborne in February 1813. General Claiborne ordered two new blockhouses to be built, but Major Beasley was slow to strengthen Fort Mims defenses. Major Beasley sent about 50 of his men to Mount Vernon on the Mobile River which was a few miles west of the fort.

    About August 24, 1813 General Claiborne led somewhere around 85 men to reinforce Fort Easley, the Red Sticks knowing the weakness of Fort Mims from their scouts, having more than 1000 warriors of Creek, Chickamauga, Choctaw and Chickasaw and Shawnee had Red Eagle planning the attack. On August 29, 1813 Red Eagle had hidden their main force in the woods just over the hill from the unsuspecting Fort Mims soldiers. The soldiers and settlers were enjoying the morning, with no idea what was going on in the tree just over the hill, all patrols reported that no Indian activity could be found.

     On August 29, 1813 the warriors had move to within less than few hundred feet of the unsuspecting Fort, and with night time on them Red Eagle and his warriors moved up to the wall of the Fort. As Red Eagle looked through the firing ports, he found that the sentries were sleeping and never heard the warriors coming.

     On the morning of August 30, 1830 the warriors were watching and waiting, the main gate on the east side of the Fort could not be closed because there was a dirt bank in front of it and the troops had not tried to close the gate. About mid morning the sound to call the troops to eat was also the call for the attack to start as 1,000 Red Stick and Chickamauga Warriors ran across the open field. Many that were up next to the wall of the Fort ran in the open gate. The warriors next to the wall used the firing ports to shoot into the fort and we took the unoccupied blockhouse. Major Beasley, with his sword in his hand, was fighting to try to close the block gate but was killed in the initial onslaught. Next in command was Bailey a halfbreed who took command using riflemen to try to hold off the attackers from the firing ports. The militiamen were pushed back to the second defenses but were overwhelmed by the numbers of warriors rushing into the Fort.

    Even with all the manpower of the Red Sticks and Chickamauga most of who were armed only with bows and Arrows, Tomahawks and Knives took heavy losses. The warriors set fire to most of the fort's buildings and many settlers with women and children were burned alive. Also, the power magazine in one cabin exploded.

    By mid afternoon the battle was far from being over and some of the warriors wished to quit the fight, but as the afternoon went on there were only about 30 of the people of the fort still living. There was over 500 that died inside the fort, when the warriors called the fight off.

    The Creek and Chickamauga warriors believed a rumor that the British in Pensacola were offering 5 dollars for the white peoples scalp. There was less than 200 warriors killed in the battle.




   The news of the massacre at Fort Mims spread and by October 4 , 1813 about 1300 Tennessee Volunteer troops under the command of Major General Andrew Jackson had moved into Northern Alabama. After a series of battles, General Jackson’s army attacked some of the Creek and Chickamauga forces on March 27, 1814 at Horseshoe Bend on the Tallapoosa river in eastern Alabama just north of where the Indian Creek Village was.. The war went on.




Principal Chief James Billy Chance



The Letters Below Were Copied Word For Word From The Original Documents



Head Quarters                                             Army of the Centre

6 & 7 Mil Dist                                               Confluence Coosa & Tallapoosa   May 2nd 1814

Genl Orders

Parole                                                            Countersign

Officer of day tomorrow                            Capt. Walker    39th Regt

Adjt                                                                 Irwin


Detail for Guards

For Fatigue

     The stock of whiskey having been augmented, the Military Store Keeper will issue rations of Spirits, on returns authenticated in manner prescribed in the orders of yesterday for Provisions, but not more than one days rations at a time. The Indians are not allowed, rations of spirits. The Genl regrets the sleepiness & security that appeared to pervade camp last night_on an alarm. In the future the firing of a single gun at night, in camp or its vicinity, will be considered as an alarm, on which every personwill promptly repair to his post. Officers will be held responsible, that those under command, duly observe this order__

By order

H.W. Connors



Alabama Headqtrs

May 17th, 1814



      I enclose you the copy of a letter received from a Gentleman whose standing in society and public character convince me he would stake nothing without authority. General in riding through his country to establish posts for its protection every feeling of the soldier has been roused. I could see nothing but bore mainly of savage barbarity. Here was to be observed a dejected plantation, the house laid in ashes & where once dwelt industry, happiness, & content a little farther a rude stockade fort presents itself inmates / Widows & orphans (made so by the merciless savages & the Governor of Pensacola  the ready agent of the British Government) who call upon their country for protection & revenge. I have other information to the same effect with the enclosed but now more to be relied on. You wish to know when I can move for Fort Jackson Is impossible for me to do so before the first of June & perhaps this information I send you may induce a belief that my remaining here longer than May ( at this time I left the Hickory Ground) supposed necessary – save this frontier – depend on it sir; that the Creek War so far from being at an end – will rage tenfold fury – The hostile Indians are supplied with everything necessary to carry it over, the Seminoles ans lower towns on the Chattahoochee will join them & present a formidable force, beside which British Troops will be at Pensacola to back them in their excursions – the supplies of this Indian being publicly  given warrants this opinion allowing the information on which I ground this opinion to be correct – does it not become our duty to take Pensacola? –by doing this the enemy have no place of security & the war will ________________ I am well aware that a negotiation for Peace is pending between America & Britain / the ally of Spain )  this should not be done but from self preservation & that is the present situation of this Frontier – it would require a force of at least ten thousand to form such a chain of Posts as would protect it from the incursion & of small parties of the Enemy  who when pressed would retire to Pensacola – but a few days past one of the citizens of the fort was killed by the Indians, & on Saturday last a party of our Choctaws killed one of the enemy within a few miles of the fort while about the same time one was fired upon by a centinel of Pierces Fort / when the Boats are building there are spies sent out to ascertain weak points at which they may strike -- & fly to Pensacola with their bleeding trophies. Col. Russell had made a requisition on the Governor of the Mississippi Territory for six hundred men. I have understood some of the counties have refused theit Quota __ the remainder have not arrived here they are on the way but move slowly -- & the frontier is exposed. The Choctaws will return home in a few days, members are at ready now & I doubt the Chickasaws will follow fifty seven of whom / mounted men / are upon a scout. This is the seventh day they have been absent. Their intentions were to discover the position of the Hostile Indians& report to me—upon their doing so I shall march against them if they take refuge in Pensacola I shall be apt to drive them out or die in the attempt. I am concerned I shall have ot fight thru lines, my numbers, be it so – my officers and soldiers are activated by feelings which no fear can conquer. If you are of opinions & with me meet half way – say at which point & let us revenge our slaughtered citizens.

  I am Sir very respectfully your most

Obt. Servt.


(check signature)

Brig. Genl. Graham


P.S.  The troops you have could bring troops to this point in three days.


Head Quarters

6 Dist


Army of the Centre

Camp Jackson  May 21st 1814



     In a letter of May 11 to your Excellency on an unpleasant matter, I had reference to letters sent herewith from Luit Thomson  Fort Mitchell to Col Nash & one other from Luit Willie Fort Lawrence to myself by some mismanagement at some of the posts, those letters were sent back and mine forwardd. as the purpose of mine cannot be so well understood without them they are now forwardd, again.____

   The towns up the Coosa and the Tallapoosa in the fork of the river (Viz) Oakfuskees Hillbees Fish Ponds &c have all come in on the 18th and submitted gave me assurance that a whiteman may travel any place between the Coosa ant Tallapoosa rivers a heavily as they have some 2 years past ____ from the best intelligence I can obtain, theres no organized Hostiles except on the Cahaba or Escambia the former; induced me to fit an expedition starts . yesterday morning  under Col. Pearson about 400 men carry their provisions in boats down the Alabama they march on the west side; will be with their boats at night, until they arrive near the mouth of Cahaba or nearest settlements of the Hostiles, where they will take two or three days provisions on their backs, leaving their boats under a proper guard and scouring the Hostiles settlements a  small guard 39th Infantry, will then take the boats to the Alabama Heights when they  return from Cahaba. In concert with this movement I have detached 4 wagons & an Escort of 100 men, which are crossing Tallapoosa above the camp: will cut a road into the Federal Road & proceed down it until opposite mouth of Cahaba make a road down the ridge to the river where Col. Pearson will cross over take in provisions his return in the wagons & come up the east side of the river, have provisions for ten days.

     This morning recd. Dispatches from Col. Milton, in answer to a letter I forward. To him; some days since together with a copy of a letter dated Fort Stoddard 11th Inst, which gives a different view of the war, than I had, when I began to write this letter. I suppose theres no doubt of the supplies furnished the Indians & the principal collections of the Hostiles are in that quarter from which they will shortly push out upon some of our weakest parties. ______ I count it unfortunate your Head Quarters are so distant, that an arrangement cannot be made consistent with the existing state of things at present, and what they probably will be in a few weeks hence: the arrival of the 3 Regt here being a contingency on which my arrangements and that of the 39th Infantry  so much depends & not within our control, the aspect of the state of war charging farther Eastward, the intelligence from Pensacola being of so decisive a cost, as to apply to another contingency in my instructions renders our situation somewhat embarrassing.___

     I have the pleasure to inform your Excellency that since you left us, our camp has been orderly and progressing in a knowledge of military duty:  that the utmost harmony has prevailed between the Militia & 39th Infantry, tho constantly doing duty guard and fatigue, together the gentlemanly and dignified conduct of the officers of the 39th has been such to inspire confidence and respect. I am in hopes if we continue in the same order to the end of the campaign will rescue the character of the militia, when properly managed, from that of being disorderly & mutinous.

I have the honor to be Your

Excellency most obdt

Joseph Graham

              Brig Genl.

Majr Genl Pinckney


Head Quarters

6 & 7 Mil Dist            

  Army of the Center

Near Fort Jackson

June 7, 1814


     The attachment under Col Pearson I gave account of in my letter of 26


Ultimd. Which went on ; and below the mouth of the Cahaba: returned to this place on 5thinst. Being absent 15 days brought in 330 prisoners of whom about 20 Negroes chiefly taken from Mims and Tensaw, and of the red people 94 men the balance women and children. Killed but one warrior who would not give up; the inhabitants were under such impressions from the manner in which they have been treated by the Choctaws and the troops stationed at the Heights (not expecting their lives to be spared) render it a service of some delicacy and management; however has been happily accomplished with but little bloodshed and tho a number is behind have the best assurance theres no danger to be apprehended if the same policy is pursued by the Governors below---They will only fight in self defense when they do not expect Quarters—I had formed a plan to rout those Canuka Pea Creek and Yellow Water in the course of a week: but dispatches received last evening from Col Milton together with his letter to you, which he has instructed me to open and reseal makes me desist for the present it appears by his statements that the Prophets and Chiefs are chiefly with Col Milton at the Heights. About this: I intend to begin movements on the 9th with a party of the Troops here for Decatur and a few days after. Some others have them at Decatur and Hull except a Garrison at this place again the 15th when will dispatch an express to meet the Col on the Federal road, in order to know the result of his talk with the Red Stick Chief. If he has made no favorable agreement with them, will file to the right into what is called Marshalls Road for wagons, down the ridge dividing Conuka and Pea Creek and Yellow Water—where they are making their principal settlements from which they can be destroyed and compel them to move elsewhere: on the other hand if Col Milton makes arrangements for a peace with them I shall only have to attend to Garrisoning the Forts agreeably to your Excellencys order and return on our way to the eastward.

     If you have not yet made arrangements for troops relieving them when their term of service is expired I would suggest to your Excellency the propriety of doing it at an early period. Tho I feel confident the Brigade will do their duty until then. It is certain they cannot be prevailed on to stay after their times up. Col Pearson is about drawing up a report of his proceedings down the Alabama, when I receive it expect to transmit to you in my next.

I have the honor to be with the

Greatest respect your Excellencys most obt.

Joseph Graham Brig Genl


NB I think you will find by the Master Rolls N.C. Troops 1st August S.C. 20 July ______




Camp Burrows 18thJune 1814

Charges and Specification exhibited by Col. Nash of the South Carolina volunteers in the Service of the United States vs David Kerr Major in the 7th Regiment of the North Carolina State Troops in the Service of the United States---

Charge 1st– Disobedience of Orders

Specification 1st – Refusing to report to Col Nash on his arrival at Fort Decature when ordered to do so. On the 12thJune Instant---

Specification 2nd– Refusing to release Mr. Bowen from his confinement as a Prisoner within the walls of Fort Decature when positively ordered to do so on the 16th June instant.---

                Charge 2nd –Ungentlemanlike and unofficerlike conduct

 Specification 1st– Calling in Capt Bowen while under an arrest and proposing to him to compromise with a private sentinel who had preferred charges against him, saying that by making some acknowledgements to the sentinel he could be released – which conduct is unbecoming an officer and a Gentleman

Specification 2nd – mingling with the private Soldiers, by amusing himself pitching dollars with them n—by such conduct disgracing, degrading, and bringing himself into contempt, thereby setting an improper example to his brother officers, then acting unbecoming an Officer and a Gentleman. –

Specification 3rd – Discharging volleys of musketry from Fort Decature into Camp Burrows on the 16th June inst__ which appeared designedly, done and manifested a wicked intent, several Balls passing very near the men – such conduct being unofficer like. –

Specification 4th – Absenting himself from Fort Decature while commanding at that Post in an Enemies country – by fishing on the River at night a distance of two miles from Camp. – such conduct being contrary to the rules and articles of War

Specification 5th – Circulating a malicious and groundless report relative to Col Nash --- stating that he acted ungentlemanlike while at Fort Decature --- by assisting in stealing a Bee hive or honey belonging to an Indian ---

Charge the 3rd--- Incapacity

Specification 1st --- Issuing an improper order to Mr. Wm. Bowen extending his limits to the Bounds of Camp Decature and at the same time ordering him to violate the said order by extending his limit to Camp Burrows ---

Specification 2nd --- Ordering Wm. Bowen M.S.K. to continue in the duties of his office while under the arrest --- being contrary to the rules and articles of War ---

Rheuben Nash L Col

___________________                              ____________________                               __________________

Col. Pearson President of the Court Martial for the trial of Lt Col Nash appointed 21st June or 23rd made the following Report

     The members of the Genl Court Martial for trial of Lt Cool Nash of So Ca Regt. met at the Block House on the morning of the 2nd. When they were informed by the Judge Advocate that Col Nash & Majr Kerr had compromised the points of honor in dispute & the charges were withdrawn

J A Pearson Prest.

The Genl. Court Martial of which Col Pearson President is dissolved. By order

H W Connor

Aid de Camp