The 1684 Treaty

In 1684 a treaty or agreement was made between that colony and the Chickmaguan Nation. The nation's leaders who signed were- Corani the Raven (Ka lanu): Sinnawa the Hawk (Tla nuwa): Nellawgitchi (possibly Mankiller): Gorhaleke: Owasta: all of Toxawa: and Canacaught, the Great Conqueror: Gohoma: Caunasaita of Keowa. 
In 1690 the first trader established himself among the nation, and took a Native wife. he was Cornelius Doughtery, an Irishman from Virginia.

English pirates destroyed all remaining Spanish missions along the coast of Georgia. A Scottish colony called Stuarts Town (on the lower Carolina coast) formed an alliance with the Yamassee under Chief Altamaha. The Scotts provided guns; and the Yamassee ran slave raids across Georgia. (This is a complete reversal for the Yamassee. They used to be the hunted; now they were the hunters.) Even tho the Spanish were totally withdrawing from Georgia & South Carolina, reprisals destroyed Yamassee settlements. Then the Spanish destroyed Stuarts Town.

A strong & steady exchange of deerskin and Indian slaves existed between the Cherokee & the South Carolina traders. Indians were hunting for profit & becoming dependent upon the Europeans for trade goods. There was a cultural shift from priest to warrior in Cherokee leadership.

Savanno Town was growing between Horse Creek and Hollow Creek on the South Carolina side of the Savannah River. This would become one of the most important Indian trade centers in South Carolina. It was a jump-off point with trails to the nations of the Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw & Chickasaw as far west as the Mississippi River.

The first treaty on record was signed between South Carolina & Cherokee chiefs. Signing this document with their own particular mark rather than with the usual cross mark were CORANI, RAVEN of Toxawa; CANACAUGHT, the Great Conqueror of Keowa; SINNAWA, or Hawk, head warrior of Toxawa; NELLAWGITEHI of Toxawa; GOHOMA of Keowa; CAUNASAITA of Keowa; GORHALEKE of Toxawa; and OWASTA, the Beloved Man of Toxawa. The Spanish still maintained their small mining and smelting operation until about 1690.

1721: A treaty between Governor Nicholson, of South Carolina, and the Cherokees and Creeks. In an attempt to systematize Indian affairs Governor Nicholson invited the Chiefs to come for a conference. 37 towns were represented. The agreements reached were; 
1) Trading methods were regulated. 
2) A boundary line was established between the Cherokees and the settlement. 
3) An agent was appointed to oversee their affairs. 
4) Wrosetastow was formally commissioned as the supreme head of the nation. 
5) Wrosetastow was given the authority to punish all offenses including murder (important because of the blood law), represent all the Nation's claims to the colonial government. 
6) Of course, land cessions.


Contacts by explorers and traders with the Cherokee continued in the subsequent years. Early manuscripts make reference to a treaty between the Cherokees and the South Carolina colony made in 1684.


In 1721, a treaty was signed with South Carolina to systematize trade but the most significant condition was the establishment of a fixed boundary between the Cherokee and the colony which was the first land cession made by the Cherokee to the Europeans. The population of the Cherokee Nation was probably 16,000-17,000 including 6,000 warriors. Although allied with the English, the Cherokee began to favor the French who had established Fort Toulouse near present Montgomery AL. The French showed greater respect for the Indians than the British who considered them an inferior race. (It should be noted that the English also considered non-English whites as inferior).


To prevent a Cherokee alliance with the French, Sir Alexander Cuming visited the prominent Cherokee towns and convinced the Cherokee to select an "emperor", Chief Moytoy of Tellico, to represent the tribe in all dealings with the British. In addition, he escorted seven Cherokees to England who met with the King and swore allegiance to the crown.

YUNWI-USGASETI (Dangerous Man) is said to have moved west to escape the white's insatiable appetite for land. His people became known as the "Lost Cherokee". A group of chiefs representing thirty-seven Cherokee towns met at Charleston with Sir Francis NICOLSON, the first British governor of South Carolina, and reached agreements concerning territorial boundaries. There being no supreme head among the Cherokee, NICOLSON appointed a chief named WROSETASATOW as such. He was also known as OUTACITE or MANKILLER. Altho white settlements were still east of the Appalachian Mountains, the common danger of white aggression aided the Cherokee in wanting to unite.

This was a departure from their past. OUTACITE was the first principal chief in their known history to attempt to represent all the Cherokee people. Up until now the Cherokee form of government was sort of a loose confederacy which consisted of many chiefs. Factional strife prevented any one chief of acquiring absolute control within their Nation. The clans sent delegated chiefs to a national council which in turn selected peace and war chiefs for their widely scattered towns. These far-flung communities had been mostly independent of each other and, to a large extent, a law unto themselves.



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